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C.Chi. 21, S.Ni.10, A.H.Ni.13, M.Ni. 52

Nirukti and Synonyms:

  1. Parisarpa – Sarvatah Praisarpan`aat Parisarpah | M.Ni. 52 T`eekaa Madhukos`ha
    Parisarpo Athavaa Namnaa Sarvatah Parisarpan`aat | C.Chi. 21
  2. Visarpa – Vividham Sarpan`aat | M.Ni. 52 T`eekaa Madhukos`ha
    Vividham Sarpati Yato Visarpah Tena Sa Smritah | C.Chi. 21
  3. Vividham Sarpati Iti Oordhvam Adho Tiryag Tathaa Sphot`a S`hophaadibhih Prasarati Iti | Chakrapaan`i C.Chi. 21.11
  4. Naanaaprakaaram Visarpati Iti | S.Ni.10/3 D`alhan`a


  • This is very acute disease and gets manifested abruptly and needs immediate treatment (S`heeghrakaaree)
  • It spreads very quickly and is very serious like snake poison (Aas`heevishopamam)
  • It spreads all over the body with blisters and swelling (Anunnata S`hopha S.Ni.10/1,2 D`alhan`a)
  • Visarpa and Kusht`ha have same Dooshya in their pathogenesis.
  • All the types of Visarpa are manifested with Sphot`a (blisters) and if they remain untreated they get suppurated and burst out to resemble to Vran`a.


  • There are 7 types of Visarpa.
  1. Vaataja
  2. Pittaja (Kshataja Visarpa)
  3. Kaphaja
  4. VaataPittaja (Agni / Aagneya Visarpa)
  5. VaataKaphaja (Granthi Visarpa) – Apachee (Sus`hruta quotes Apachee as Granthi Visarpa M. Ni. T`eekaa Madhukos`ha)
  6. KaphaPittaja (Karadamaka)
  7. Saannipaatika
  8. Kshataja Visarpa Though it has been described separately, it should be considered as type of Pittaja Visarpa. Hence, it is not listed while numerating the types.
  • Visarpa is also classified as
  1. Bahihs`hrita Saadhya If the Dosha are situated in S`haakhaa the body, the Visarpa manifested is Bahihs`hrita Visarpa.
  2. Antahs`hrita Krichchhrasaadhya – If the Dosha are situated in (Antah Kosht`ha) the body, the Visarpa manifested is Antahs`hrita Visarpa.
  3. Ubhayaas`hrita (Bahihs`hrita & Antahs`hritaAsaadhya – If the Doshaa_s are situated in both the places, the Visarpa manifested is Ubhayaas`hrita Visarpa.


  • Dosha
    • All the three vitiated Dosha are responsible for Visarpa.
      Owing to their excessive vitiation, Dooshya are called as Mala. C.Chi.21/15 (Chakrapaan`i)
  • Dooshya / Dhaatu
    • Rakta
    • Maamsa
  • Upadhaatu
    • Tvak
    • Laseekaa (Jalam M.Ni. T`eekaa AatankaDarpan`a)
  • Due to the various causative factors (Vyaamis`hra Nidaana) all the three Dosha get aggravated. They traverse through all over the body vitiating the Dhaatu that result in the manifestation of Visarpa.
  • Aggravated Dosha enter into the Tvak, Maamsa, S`hon`ita. They do not remain at one site in the body but keep moving from one place to another generating widespread swelling and keep spreading in the body. This type of swelling is called as Visarpa.

Vaataja Visarpa:
Aggravation of Vaayu is the most important factor in manifestation of Visarpa. Vaayu is aggravated either by its own reason (Svatantra Hetu) like hot and dry substances or it gets aggravated due to Maargaavarodha (Pooran`a) [Paratantra Hetu]. This aggravated Vaayu vitiates Dooshya (Rakta, Maamsa, Laseekaa, Tvak) spreading them all over the body. This is Visarpa.

Pittaja Visarpa:
Pitta gets accumulated (Chaya) due to hot dietary and behavioral regimen, Vidaahee and sour food. It enters the Dhamanee, vitiating the Dooshya (Rakta, Maamsa, Tvak, Laseekaa) and traverse through the body.

Kaphaja Visarpa:
Due to sweet, sour, salty, heavy and unctuous food Kapha accumulates (Chaya) in the body. It vitiating Dooshya (Rakta, Maamsa, Tvak, Laseekaa) spreads slowly (Ksichchhram Visarpati S`heeghram S`hareere na Visarpati; Chakrapaan`i Ch. Chi.21.33)

VaataPittaja Visarpa (Agni Visarpa):
Vaata and Pitta, both get aggravated excessively due to their causative factors. They both aggravate each other (Parasparam Labdhabalam Anyonya Vardhita S`haktikam Chakrapaan`i). They spread Dooshya all over the body causing burning sensation like red hot coal. This is Agni Visarpa.

KaphaPittaja Visarpa (Kardamaka Visarpa):
Kapha and Pitta aggravated due to their strong causative factors gets spreaded through the body putrifying the Dooshya. It does not spread quickly (Alasaka Manda Visarpee). It does not affect all the body parts (Eka Des`ha Graahee Na Sarva S`hareera Vyaapaka). It is Kardama Visarpa. It resembles to muddy appearance.

KaphaVaataja Visarpa (Granthi Visarpa):
Kapha and Vaayu aggravate due to their causative factors. They both get vitiated and aggravated (Dusht`i and Prakopa) and vitiate Dooshya (Rakta, Maamsa, Tvak, Laseekaa). Vaayu obstructed due to Kapha, penetrates Kapaha, producing line of cysts (Granthi) which are slowly suppurated. These cysts are formed in Rakta, Siraa, Snaayu, Maamsa, and Tvak.

Kshataja Visarpa:
Due to the exogenous causes Vaayu gets aggravated. This aggravated Vaayu vitiates Pitta with Rakta. There is immense swelling (S`hotha), Jvara, Rujaa (Pain) and burning sensation (Daaha) and blisters (Sphot`a) on the skin. Rakta turns to S`hyaava Varn`aPitta and Rakta enter into the fresh wound generating swelling like Kulattha (Horse Gram).

Capacity of dietary fire gets reduced (Agni Maandya) due to Marmaaghaata, Sammoha, Trishn`aa Atiyoga (excessive water intake), Vishama Vega Pravartana. The strength of the person also gets decreased. Thus, Antarvisarpa gets manifested.

  • Complications of Visarpa
  1. Jvara
  2. Atisaara
  3. Vamathu
  4. Tvak Daran`a
  5. Maamsa Daran`a
  6. Klama
  7. Arochaka
  8. Avipaaka
  • Saadhyaasaadhtatva
Saadhya VisarpaAsaadhya VisarpaKrichchhrasaadhya Visarpa
VaatajaSaannipaatikaMarmagata Visarpa
 Anjana Vapuh 

Anjana Vapuh Where skin colour resembles to Anjana (Anjanasamavarn`atanuh M. N. 52/25, T`eekaa Madhukos`ha / Srotojakardamanibh / Anjana Sadris`ha Kardama Drava Tulyah S.Ni.10/5. D`alhan`a)

Difference between Kusht`ha and Visarpa

Dosha ConditionDosha traverse through all over the body quickly.Dosha are Chala / Visarpan`as`heelaDosha traverse slowly and the disease manifests after a long period after vitiation of DoshaDosha are Sthira (stable)
Vyaadhi SvaroopaS`heeghra Roga manifested suddenlyIt manifests very slowly Deergha Roga
Hetu Vis`heshaIt is not caused by Hetu like Guru Pradharshan`a (insulting Sages, Teachers), Para Dravya Apaharan`a (to steal the things of others)It causes by Guru Pradharshan`a (insulting Sages, Teachers), Para Dravya Apaharan`a (to steal the things of others)
Common factorDosha have dominance of Rakta and Pitta, but it is TridoshajaDosha have dominance of Rakta and Pitta, but it is Tridoshaja

Visarpa: Sampraapti

RogamaargaBaahya, Aabhyantara, Madhyama (Marmagatatva of Visarpa)
SvabhaavaDaarun`a, S`heghrakaaree, Aas`heevisha Vishopamam
ClassificationRaktapradoshaja, Maamsapradoshaja
Vyakti SthaanaTvak
Krichchhra criteriaMarmagata, Antahs`hrita
DoshaVaata, Pitta and Kapha Dusht`i (Ati) and Prakopa; Vaata Prakopa, AavaranaPitta Chaya
Dosha Gun`aVaata = Rooksha, Ooshn`a, ChalaPitta = Ooshn`a, Amla, Teekshn`a, Visra, Drava, SaraKapha = Snigdha, Guru, S`heeta, Sthira, Manda, S`hlakshn`a
DhaatuRakta, Maamsa
UpadhaatuTvak, Laseekaa
MalaRaktavaha, Maamsavaha
Upas`hayaNidaana Vipareeta
Anupas`hayaDue to Nidaana Sevana
AgniAgni Kshaya
Effect on OthersBala kshaya

Visarpa: Sampraapti

Visarpa TypeVaatajaPittajaKaphajaVaataKaphaja (Granthi)VaataPittaja (Agni)Pitta Kaphaja (Kardamaka)SaannipaatikaKshataja
Saadhya criteriaSaadhyaSaadhyaSaadhyaSaadhya if AnupadravaSaadhya if AnupadravaSaadhya if Anupadrava  

Last updated on February 15th, 2021 at 05:31 am

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