Ayurvedic classical compendia claim to cover all topics, in the initial stages. But if the statements of recent scholars are noted, the initial claim does not stand. The style of making the inclusion of topics and elaborations of them is also different. Charaka, Sus`hruta go on discussing themes and topics according to their style. They along with Kaashyapa were the original authors; whereas Vaagbhat`a was a capable compiler of up to that time available texts, commentaries, and similar compilations to structurize his work.
Charaka spreads the initial format by highlighting the hierarchical link, from the beginning of the world. Whereas Sus`hruta initiates the compendium for the pleasure loving people for self protection, the control of people by state regarding health continuation, and individual salvation. Charaka states that knowledge of Ayurveda is wanted to ward off potential obstacles in pursuance of penance religious rites. The aims of going to a capable teacher are different in both.
Charaka provides multiple views for many on so many occasions; whereas Sus`hruta allows such expressions by many at one place. He lays more emphasis on end results, communication rather than expressions of different and different academic points. Probably the need for providing a forum was over with the end of Charaka. The first chapter of Shaareerasthaana of Charaka is full of 24 questions and still further 2 chapters were required to cover the theme of contributors in the body. Sus`hruta covers a broader theme up to the last point of working knowledge of all components of the body in short chapter of 22 stanzas. He clearly remarks that a professional should go back to the origin of materials, not more than that of Mahaabhautika limitations, for his everyday requirement.
The later author has the advantage of elaborations already done, and therefore by not elaborating topics already covered. Sus`hruta covers wider themes than that of Charaka. In a chapter on Srotas Charaka spares 3 chapters with the initial information. But later Sus`hruta categorically tells us that he will proceed to narrate more than what his predecessor has missed, by spending pages. Sus`hruta noted what has been already agreeably elaborated upon in the Srotas chapter by Charaka and also the fact that Charaka did not record the layout for the most to be bilateral, nor did he indicate anything about the traumatized status of any one of them. Having distinctly examined the traumatized component organs comprising a Srotas, Sus`hruta leads ahead for the specific management, and the prognoses. Charaka even though very much needed, did not elaborate this, in the 3 or more chapters dealing with Srotas.
Charaka has at many places, emphasized the significance of actual examination. But specific examination to reach a particular decision was given by Sus`hruta. In the narration of non-mentioned, to be included by later scholars, Charakas statements are general in outline, Sus`hruta however, in Su.Ch.40 and 46 communicates, that in the situation of non-mentioned, due to lack of evidence, a scholar should use methods of taste scrutiny, and method of ascertainment of Mahaabhautika fractions properties. By completion of this, with auxiliary information the non-mentioned can be placed in the appropriate class by a scholar. Charaka hints at many parallel sciences of health management in vogue. A consumer has to choose one by comparative scrutiny between them. Sus`hruta has the initial compendium, before the one propagated by him. In his text he give emphasis on not relying only on the text verbatim. The actually observed in clinics or in the field (for materials verification) and the one stated in verbatim, should be correlated to augment professional excellence. Both the text and practical need be matched for entire professional learning.
Simultaneously he guides that if the comprehensive health management science if is to be excellently commanded, the contemporary sciences like Nyaaya, Vais`heshika Saankhya, yoga, Meemaamsaa, Vedaanta, Jyotisha, language grammar Vyaakaran`a need be capably learnt; from authorities in the respective disciplines. Sticking strictly to verbatim learning is not going to achieve excellence. The advice of Sus`hruta is considered also today, for other sciences these days by a few. If the Sus`hrutas expected contemporary oriental sciences are studied, there is no harm in also learning 20th century medical and Para-medical sciences. The difference is due to the experience of subsequent learners, and comparison of text statements and practical or field facts.
The contributing updating scholars, for both compendia, while doing their scholastic lot, are keen on expressing their gratitude for marshaling the task of original seers. Drid`habala states that to continue the potency of verbatim by Charaka, he has undertaken the scholarly responsibility. The lacunae that were exposed in practice were to be removed by suitably updating the available verbatim. For this, Drid`habala scanned the available Ayurvedic literature, and brought together all desired fragments to the extent so that the updated compendium will be without lacunae. The example given there is of collecting the grains after threshing from the bulk corns and chaff. The less mechanized threshing initially leaves, intact or the fragmented grain-contents in the mix. A careful harvester repeats the process of centrifuging the mix so that the smallest of a grain particle is captured. The task of updating the respected existing compendium was so intricate, that there was a risk of losing useful grain-material. The term UNCHHASHILOCCHAYA is for keenness in capturing the useful material even though it is masked in a huge mix with chaff all the way.
The Sus`hruta compendium updated by Nimi for many aspects of Shaalaakya (ear, nose, throat and eye), the intention expressed by him is similar to that of Drid`habala. His contribution is after due scholarly scanning of all textual, commentators, and compiled works till then. There were numerous sources held responsible for editing responsibility. The addendum or appendix like Uttaratantra is also the distinct way of trying to stay updated. As the compendium of Sus`hruta was later, compared to Charaka`s, the idea of addendum could be bought in execution. While the use of compendium was progressing ahead, scholars realized the necessity of putting something than what was available for managing.
Vaagbhat`a, the capable updating prcis performer, has in the beginning of his treatise, expressed certain remarks about the styles of earlier authors. He makes the statement in such a way that the Herculean work, of compilation he is undertaking, with the clear intention of avoiding the lacunae that were seen till then; in the available time honored compendia. The list is as follows: –
1. Writing w/o correct place
2. Unusually expanded
3. Statements are objectionable
4. Text has abundant repetitions
5. Though stated in the beginning, authors do not restrict only to the trio of cause, signs, symptoms, and management
6. They leave ambiguous points as they are
a. In principle and
b. Components of the text proper
7. They do not care for clarifications on diagonally opposite expressions
a. In the same compendium at different places and
b. Differences with another authors texts.
8. They have lost contemporary relevance as they were prepared ages earlier.
The great scholar has, right in the beginning assured the reader that he will avoid all these, in his ensuing practical academic pursuit by doing away with inconveniences and the reader will have the advantage of the properly changed sequence, without any shift in spirit of letters from the original elaboration. It is rendered new in such a way that an available and tolerable lot will replace strong interventions, not tolerated by generation of the present years, competently. So by opting for the newer collection about the views of so many in life science, or by poetry rich heart of heart of all 8 divisions of speciality, the reader will harvest coverage of more by reading and (by learning) bye- hearting much less. This learning leaves sufficient time for actual practice. The wisdom of these numerous scholars, the learners of which used to get exhausted, due to long spells of voluminous learning through materials earlier available, can now be easily accessed.
Dr. Sathye B. V
Sr.Scientist AyuSoft. Pune
Last updated on December 29th, 2020 at 06:57 am