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C.Chi.17, S.U.50, A.H.Ni.4

Literal meaning of Hikkaa is hiccup.It is a serious disease. Though the word Hikkaa means the spasmodic sound in the throat but this word denotes the diseased condition. There are so many diseases which are responsible for death. Amongst them, S`hvaasa and Hikkaa are the two, because of which a man leads to the death very quickly. A person experiences great pain inconvenience at the time of death.

The disease is manifested with the dominance of Kapha and Vaata. The pathogenesis of the disease starts from the Pitta Sthaana i. e. Aamaas`haya.

Hikkaa manifests with sudden, continuous and repeated high toned spasmodic sounds with the seizing of throat. This sound may be heard once, twice or thrice at one time. The sound is so loud and the Vaata is so quick that a person feels as if his liver, spleen and intestines are being thrown out.

        Tatra Hig iti Kaayati S`habdam Karoti Iti Hikkaa | C.Chi.17/27-30 Chakrapaan`i
        Yatah Sa Vaayuh Ghoshavaan San AAs`hu S`heeghram Asoon Praan`aan Hinasti Tato Budhaih HikkaaIti Uchyate | S.U.50/6
        Hig Iti Kritvaa Kaayati S`habdaayate Iti Hikkaa Iti S`haabdikaah | S.U.50/6
The disease in which a person makes a sound like Hig is called as Hikkaa.
Causative Dosha Vaata turns to a sound like Hig and immediately leads to the death, so the disease is called as Hikkaa.


        Vyapetaa (Yamalaa / Parin`aamavatee)
        Annajaa (Bhaktodbhavaa)

Mahaa Hikkaa:
Vaayu with Kapha obstructs the channels for Praan`a, UdakaAnna (food) manifesting HikkaaHikkaa manifests with sudden, perpetual and repeated high toned spasmodic sounds with the seizing of throat. This sound may be heard once, twice or thrice at one time. There is obstruction of Praan`a, Srotas and Marma Sthaana like Basti, Hridaya, S`hira etc. There is loss of senses (Sandnyaa Naas`ha), stiffness in the body parts and memory loss.

This is a serious condition. The sound produced is very loud, the strength of the disease is more, the paroxysm of the Hikkaa is acute and it manifests due to the severity of Dosha; therefore it is called as Mahaa Hikkaa. It leads to the death.

Gambheeraa Hikkaa:
There is a big sound of Hiccup with deep reverberation of sound (Gambheera Anunaada) there is yawing, stiffness. The pathogenesis of this type of Hikkaa originates from Naabhi (Umbilicus) and Pakvaas`haya. There is difficulty in exhalation which leads to the death.

In Gambheeraa Hikkaa many complications are seen afterwards like Jvara, Trishn`aa etc.

Vyapetaa Hikkaa:
Yaa Hikkaa Yamalaih Vegaih Pravartate Saa Yamalaa Hikkaa | T`eekaa S. U. 50.10
The word Vyapetaa means at the end of (digestion). It aggravates after the digestion of the food. This type of Hikkaa increases when the digestion of the food gets completed. The pathogenesis of this type of Hikkaa originates from the root of Jatru (Jatru Moola). There is bending of the body (Vinaamina). This Hikkaa is not continuous (Asantata) and leads to death.
This Hikkaa is sounded twice at a time. There is tremor in neck and head.

Kshudra Hikkaa:
Aggravation of Vaata is relatively less than other types of HikkaaVaayu form Kosht`ha traverse to the throat (Kan`t`ha) due to exercise manifesting Kshudra Hikkaa. By name it denotes that this type of Hikkaa is not serious; it is mild but subsides by the regimen by which the Hikkaa is manifested. Exercise itself reduces the Hikkaa which is a cause of Kshudra Hikkaa.

According to Sus`hruta Kshudraa Hikkaa originates from the root of Jatru.

Annajaa Hikkaa:
Upward direction of Vaata from Kosht`ha is caused due to sudden intake of food, liquid, liquor, excessive talk, walking, laughing, carrying load etc. This Vaayu harbors in the chest causing Annajaa Hikkaa. This subsides after eating food or drinking liquid. There is a sneezing after the sound of Hikkaa.


  1. Vaayu gets aggravated in the Praan`avaha Srotas.
  2. This aggravated Vaata vitiate Kapha.
  3. Collectively both Vaata and Kapha produce Hikkaa causing obstruction in the Praan`avaha, Annavaha and Udakavaha Srotas.

Last updated on February 10th, 2021 at 07:14 am

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