Yamini Bhusan Tripathi, VK Gupta, BN Upadhyay and late Prof S.N. Tripathi
Introduction: Cardiac diseases are one of the chronic diseases, which are getting more common in the developed countries. The first clinical symptom of this disease is Dyspneafollowed by angina on exercise. Ayurveda has an edge in this field. There are several medicinal plants, which have been described as Hridya (For cardiac care) in Ayurvedic texts and one of them is Inula racemosa, which is described here.
Inula racemosaHook F. belongs to the family Compositae. Its Sanskrit Name is Pushkaramoolam, in Hindi it is Pushkaramoola or Pokharamoola and in English it is named as Oris root. Other regional names are Pushkaram, Paushkaram, Pushkara Jat`aa, Kashiram, Padmavarnakam, Moolam, Padman, Padma Patrakam, S`hvaasari, Pushkara Moola, Penva, Pokharamoola, Poshkara, Rasana, Gharsa, Pokarrumoolam (1). It is a tall, stout herb. Stem 0.3-1.5 meters high, rough, grooved, leaves leathery, rough above densely hairy beneath. Basal leaves 20-45 cms, long stalked, elliptic lance-shaped, stem leaves oblong half-stem-clasping, often deeply lobed at the base. Heads many, very large, 3.8-5
cms diameter in racemes. Outer bracts broad, tips triangular, bent back, inner bracts liner, sharp pointed. Lingulesslender, 1.3 cmslong. Fruit (Achene) 4cms long slender, hairless. Pappus8 cmslong reddish (2).
As per the Ayurvedic text it is used as S`hvaasaharaand Hikkaanigrahan`a (Charaka). Due to its Ushn`a Veerya nature, it is Kapha Vaata S`haamaka. It possesses Gun`a as Laghu, Teekshn`a, Rasa as Tikta, Kat`u, Veerya as Ushn`a and Vipaaka as Kat`u. Pushkaramoola is very useful for Hikkaa, S`hvaasa, Hridroga, Paars`hvas`hoolaa, Hridayas`hoola, Kaasa, Kshaya, Jeern`a Jvara, S`hopha, Paan`d`u etc. as described in various classical Ayurvedic texts as given below. It is also recommended for bronchial asthma cough hiccup etc (3).
Pure Phytochemical, especially steroidal compound with melting point 149-152, Daucosterol, 3 Sesquiterpine, Lactonee.g. Dihydro-Iso-Alanto-Lactone, Iso-Alantolactone(major portion) and Alantolactonehave been isolated from the underground part of Inula racemosa. The last one was reported to be less toxic than other Phytochemicals(4-6). In South India, Malabar variety of Pushkaramoolais used as a substitute for the North Indian Pushkaramoola, which contains a high amount of essential oil and a group of Sesquiterpensescalled Alantoidesand a high yield of Octadecanoicacid, d-Maniitol, Iso-Alantolactone, and beta-Sistosterols, Glucosideswere isolated from this extract, (7). It also contains Insulin 10% a volatile oil (1.3%) and Alantolactones(C15H20O2) in oil (5).
Pushkaramoola has been found to reduce blood sugar in rabbits with glucose induced Hyperglycemia(8). It has reported to reduce serum cholesterol (9). In rats, the petroleum ether extract of roots of I. racemosalowered plasma insulin and glucose levels within 75 min of oral administration and it significantly counteracted adrenaline induced Hyperglycemiain rats (10) Its alcoholic extract lowered blood glucose and enhanced liver glycogen without increasing plasma insulin in rats. There was no increase in degree of de-granulation of the beta cells of pancreas indicating its action on the target tissue, suggested that its hypoglycemic response was not due to enhanced secretion/synthesis of insulin but by enhanced insulin sensitivity (11) In similar conditions it does not show any effect on activity of adrenal gland. However the thyroid gland undergoes activation at a later stage (delayed response) 11. Other scientist has also reported the hypoglycemiceffects of I. racemosathrough inhibition in corticosteroidconcentration 12. In a separate study it lowered the raised concentration of both cortisoland glucose in the serum and inhibits lipid-peroxidation13. Although it was not effective in thyroid hormone meditated type II diabetes, but it enhanced the insulin sensitivity in an animal model (14, 15).
The extract of Inula racemosashowed negative inotropicand negative chronotropiceffects on a frogs heart showing its blocking activity for beta-Adrenergicreceptors. Results were comparable with propranolol(10, 16) It showed reversal in the changed parameters of rats, where myocardial infarction was induced experimentally by isprenalineinjection specially increased level of circulating GOT, LDH, CPK, CAMO, cortisol, pyruvate, lactate glucose and cardiac Camp adenyl cyclase. The results were comparable to that of ciplar, a standard beta blocker (9).
It showed potential Cardio protectivebenefits in different human trials. With Pushkara Guggula, a ply herbal formulation, it is significantly protected the exercise induced ECG changes in a 3 months open clinical trial study on 50 patients with confirmed diagnosis of IHD with score of 10% cure, 60% with 60% relief and 20% with improved and 10% with unchanged symptoms (17-18). Another experimental study showed the prevention of ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the post-exercise electrocardiogram of the patients treated with Inula racemosaroot powder (10,19). In combination with Commiphora mukul, it was found to be superiorto that of nitroglycerin in reducing the chest pain and dysponeaassociated with angina (20-22).
Its Aqueousand alcoholic extract showed potent ant-5-HT and antihistaminic leading to anti-allergic properties (23). It prevented the mast cell degranulationand was effective against type I hypersensitivity, viz. egg albumin induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis(PCA) in albino rats (24) alantone(50mg/kg of the body weight daily during 30 days) has shown the increase in number and level of maturity of peritoneal and mesenteric mast cells and decreased blood clotting, thus improving the peripheral blood circulation and microcirculation (25).
The alcoholic extract of the roots of Inula racemosashoed anti-dermatophyticand cholinergicactivities (26). isoalantoactonearrested the spread of human pathogenic fungi especially aspergillus flavus, A. niger, geotrichum candidum, candida tropicalisand C. albicans(6) In-vitro anti-fungal activity of alantolactoneand iso-alantolactoneagainst two ringworm fungi was reported. The response was comparable with nystainbut inferior from amphotericin. alanolactoneshowed antihelmenthicactivity against earthworms and tapeworms is an antiseptic, expectorant and diuretic (27)
- Chopra RN, Chopra IC and VermaBS, supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants p-46, CSIR publication, New Delhi
- (The wealth of India Vo. V, 1959, CSIR publication, New Delhi)
- Ayurvedic references
- Mehara MM, DeshpandeKG, GhatagBB and Bhattacharya SK, TerpenoidsCV
Transformation product of an Alantolactone, Tetrahendron23, 2469-80 (1967)
- Purushothanman, K.K, Krishna S and NarainswamiV, Puhskarmool, J. ResIndian Med. 7 (4) 39-42 (1972)
- Tan RX, Tang HQ, HuJ, ShuaiB, Lignansand Sesquiterpenelactones from Artemisisasieversianaand Inualracemosa. Phytochemistry. 1998 Sept.49 (1): 157-61.
- Purushothanman, K.K. SaradaA., Chemical examination of substitutes for PushkaramoolaJ Res Indian Med. 9 (3), 30-32 (1974)
- Singh RS and TripathiSN, Clinical and Experimental studies on oral hypoglycemic (Pramehaghna) drugs of Indian Medicine. Thesis submitted for the award of MD (ay), Institute of medical Sciences, BanarasHindu University, Varanasi221005, India (1972)
- Patel V, BanuB, OjhaJK, MalhotraOP, UdupaKN,. Effect of indigenous drug (Pushkaramoola) on experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Act NervSuper (Praha) 1982;Suppl3(Pt2); 387-94.
- Tripathi YB, TripathiP, UpadhyayBN. Assessment of the Adrenergicbeta-blocking activity of Inularacemosa. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 May-Jun; 23(1):3-9.
- Y.B.Tripathiand P. Chaturvedi, Assessment of endocrine response of I. racemosain relation to glucose homeostasis in rats, Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 3: 686-689, 1995
- Hypoglycemic effects of some plant extracts are possibly mediated through inhibition in Corticosteroidconcentration. Pharmazie. 2004 Nov 59 (11): 876-8.
- P.Chatturvedi, S.Shukla, P. TripathiS.K.Singh & Y.B.Tripathi, Comparative study of Inularacemosaand Saussurealappaon the glucose level in albino rats, Ancient Sc. of life 15 (I): 62-70, 1995.
- Gholap S.KarA., effects of Inularacemosaroot and Gymnemasylvestrelead extracts in the regulation of Corticosteroidinduced diabetes mellitus: involvement of thyroid hormones PharmazieJun: 58 (6) 413-5 (2003)
- Kelly G.S. Inula racemosa Potentiatedinsulin sensitivity in an animal model.
- Tripathi SN, Tiwari Cm, Upadhyay BN and Singh RS, Screening of hypoglycemic action in certain indigenous drugs, J ResIndian Med. Yoga & Homeop, 14 (3-4), 159, (1979),
- Tripathi SN, Upadhyaya BN, Gupta VK. Beneficial effect of Inula racemosa(Pushkaramoola) in angina pectoris: a preliminary report. Indian JphysiolPaharmacol1984 Jan Mar; 28 (1): 73-5
- Gupta VK and TripathiSN, Evaluation of Pushkara–Guggula in the management of Trichula(IHD). Thesis submitted for the award of MD (ay), Institute of medical sciences, BanarasHindu University, Varanasi221005, India (1981)
- Tripathi, S.N. and Upadhyay, B.N.: A clinical trial of C.Mukulin the patients of Ischaemicheart disease. (Abst), Jour. Mol. And cell Cardiol, Academic Press London, 10: 125 1978 (Suppl.1)
- S.N.T.B.N. Upadhyay, S.D. Sharam, V.K.Gupta & Y.B. Tripathi, Role of Pushkara Guggulu in the Management of ischaemicheart disease, Ancient Science of life IV (1), 9-19, 1984
- Sharma SD and TripathiSN, A new clinical approach for diagnosis and treatment of IHD (Hridayaroga) based on Indian Medicine, Thesis submitted for the award of MD (ay), Institute of medical sciences, BanarasHindu University, Varanasi221005, India (1984)
- Miller AL. Botanical influences on cardiovascular disease. AlternMed Rev. 3(6); 422423 (1998)
- Singh N NathR Gupta MC, KohliRP, An experimental evaluation of anti-Asthmaticpotentialities of Inula racemosa, QuarternaryJournal crude drug research 18 (2), 89-96 (1980)
- Srivastava S Gupta PP Prasad R Dixit, Kspalit G, Ali B Misra G, SaxenaRC, Evaluation of Antiallergicactivity (type I hypersensitivity) of Inula racemosain rats. Indian Jphysiol Pharmacol1999 Apr; 43(2): 235 41
- Klymenko MO, Luchkova MM, Tatarko SV, Luchkov AB, Effect of Alantone on mast cells and Hemostasis Fiziol Zh. 2003 49 (5) 72-5 Ukrainian.
- Tripathi VD, Agrawal SK, Srivastava OP, and Rastogi OP, Anti Dermatophytic constituents from Inula racemosa Indian J Pharmacy Sc.40 (4) 129-31 (1978)
- Mishra SH and Sharma RA Antihelminthic activity of some essential oils, Indian Perfume 23 (3-4), 208-0, 1979
Reference 3-Appendix A
Use of Pushkaramoolain Hridayaroga according to Ayurvedic Classics:
- Charaka Samhitaa
- Pushkaramoola is the best drug for the Paars`hva S`hoola(C.Su. 25/40)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction for Hridgraha and Paars`hvas`hoola(C.Chi. 3/211 212)
- Pushkaramoola Along with other drugs in the form of Ghrita is useful for Vaatika pain in Hridaya and Paars`hvaC.Chi. 26/83.
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Kalka is useful for Vaatika Hridroga and Vikartikaa (C.Chi. 26/84)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction for Vaatika Hridroga (C.Chi. 26/85)
- Pushkarmoola with other drugs as Kalka in Hrids`hoola, Paars`hva S`hoola(C. Chi. 26/86; C FA.H.Chi. 6/34)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain Kaphaja Hridroga(C.Chi., 26/97).
- Sus`hruta Samhitaa:
Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction in Hrid S`hoolaand Paars`hvas`hoola(S.U. 42/120-121).
- Bhela Samhitaa:
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Ghrita in Hridayaroga (Bhel. Chi.5)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs in Hridroga (Bhel. Chi.12)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain Hridroga(Bhel. Chi., 21)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs in Hridroga an Paars`hva S`hoolaa (Bhel. Chi., 28/13)
- Haareeta Samhitaa:
Pushkaramoola has been included in compounds useful for S`hoola(Haareeta Sthaana, III, 2/116-117, 121)
- Kaas`hyapa Samhitaa
Pushkaramoola with other as Choorn`ain Hrid S`hoola etc. (Kashyap Khilsthan, 18/19)
- Ashtang Hridaya:
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Ghrita in Hrid S`hoola (A. H. Chi., 6/28), CF. (C. Chi., 26/83)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Kalka in Vikartikaa S`hoola, (A. H. Chi., 6/31; CF.(C. Chi., 26/84), CF (Bhaishajya Ratnaavali, 33/5)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction in Vikartikaa S`hoola(A. H. Chi., 6/32-33).
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Kalka in Hridaya S`hoola, (Paars`hvaS`hoolaA. H. Chi., 6/34).
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain Kaphaja Hridroga(A. H. Chi., 6/52)
- Nibandha Samgraha
It is treatise of D`alhan`a Pushkaramoolawith other drugs in Hingvaadi Gut`ikaa fro Hridroga Paars`hvas`hoola etc. (D`alhan`a, 5/49).
- Madanpaala Nighantu:
It is useful especially in Parshavs`hoola.
- Pushkaramoola with honey is good for Hrid S`hoola (Chakradatta 31/12)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain Hridroga, S`hoola, etc. (Chakradatta, 31/19-21). CF (Gadanigraha, Vol. II 26/20), CF (Yog Ratnaakara Uttaraardha, Hridrogachikitsaa, p.48), CF(Bhaishajya Ratnaavali, 33/17).
- Gada Nigraha
- Pushkaramoola Choorn`a with honey in Hridroga, Esp. Hrid S`hoola , (Gada Nigraha, Vol. II, 26/20) CF. (Gadanigraha, Vol. II 26/20). Cf. (Chakradatta 31/19-21); Cf. (Yoga Ratnakar, Uttaradh Hridroga Chikitsaa, p.48); CF (Bha Ratnaavlee, 33/17).
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain S`hoola Hridroga(Gada Nigraha, Vol. II 26/25); CF (Yoga Tarangin`ee, 47/3); CF (Yoga Ratnaakara, Uttaraardha, Hridrogachikitsaa, p.47)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain Hridroga(Gada Nigraha, Vol. II, 26/31); CF (Bh Ratnaavlee, 33/4)
- Vanga Sena:
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Kalka in Vaatika Hridrogaand Vikartikaa (Vanga Sena, 33/9); CF (C. Chi, 26/84).
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction in Vaatika Hridroga(Vanga Sena, 33/10); CF (C. Chi. 26/85)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Ghritain Vaatika Hridrogaand Paars`hvas`hoola(Vanga Sena, 33/11).
- Bhava Prakaas`ha Nighan`t`u:
It is useful for Hridroga(Uttaraardha, Hridrogaadhikaara, 34/12)
- Yoga Tarangin`ee:
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain S`hoola, and Hridroga(Yoga Tarangin`ee, 47/3). Cf. (Yoga Ratnaakara, Uttaraardha, Hridrogachikitsaa, p.47).
- Pushkara with other drugs as Choorn`ain Hridroga(Yoga Tarangin`ee.47/5).
- Yoga Ratnaakara:
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction in Vaatika Hridroga. (Yoga Ratnaakara, Uttaraardha, Hridayaroga Chikitsaa, p.47); Cf. (Yoga-Tarangini, 47/3).
- Pushkaramoola Choorn`a with honey in Hridrogaetc. (Yoga Ratnaakara Uttaraardha, Hridroga Chikitsaa, p.47); (GadanigrahaCol.II, 26/20); CF. (Bh. Ratnaavalee 33/17).
- Pushkaramoola Choorn`a with honey in Hridrogaetc. (Yoga Ratnaakara Uttaraardha, Hridroga Chikitsaa, p.47); (GadanigrahaVol.II, 26/20); CF. (Bh. Ratnaavalee 33/17).
- Yoga Ratna Samuchchaya:
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction Vaatika Hridroga(Yoga Ratna Samuchchaya 12/79)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction in Vikartika S`hoola Vaatika Hridroga (Yoga Ratna Samuchchaya 12/81)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Ghritain Vaatika Hridroga(Yoga Ratna Samuchchaya 12/89)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`awith cow urine in Kaphaja Hridroga(Yoga Ratna Samuchchaya 12/110)
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Ghritain Hridroga(Yoga Ratna Samuchchaya12/132)
- Bhaishajya Ratnaavlee:
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Choorn`ain Hridroga(Bh. Ratnaavlee, 33/4); Cf. (Gada Nigrah, Vol.II, 26/31).
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as Kalka in Vaatika Hridroga and Vikartikaa ( Bh. Ratnaavlee, 33/5); Cf. Ch. Chi., 26/84); Cf. (A.H. Chi. 6/31).
- Pushkaramoola with other drugs as decoction in Vaatika Hridroga(Bh. Ratnavalli , 33/7); CF. (Ch.Chi., 26/85).
- Pushkaramoola Choorn`a with honey in Hrid S`hoola (Bh. Ratnaavlee, Uttaraardha, Hridroga Chikitsaa, p.47)
- S`haaligraama Nighan`t`u:
Pushkaramoola is good for Paarshvas`hoola(S`haaligraama Nighan`t`u, Sthaanavarga, p. 194). (Purushothanman, K.K. Sarada, A., 1974)
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Kaaya Chikitsaa,
Institute of Medical Sciences,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi221005, India
Last updated on February 26th, 2021 at 09:05 am