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Parpat`ee Kalpanaa

Vd. Swati Gadgil,
M.D. (Rasashastra)

Rasas`haastra is one of the most important branches of Ayurved Rasas`haastra means Aayurvedika pharmaceutics. It mainly deals with the drugs of mineral origin and of animal origin also. Paarada and Gandhaka are the substances of great importance in Rasas`haastra. The word Rasa from Rasas`haastra itself means Paarada.

As per Rasas`haastra, Paarada i.e. Mercury is said to be the most potent substance. It has all the six tastes. It balances all the three body Dosha. It becomes vehicle for all the other medicines and it is useful in treating all the diseases. All the above properties are manifested and observed only when it is mixed with some other substance i.e. in its compound form. Thus for the therapeutic purposes mercury should be used after subjecting it to Moorchhanaa process. This process is of two types:

Sagandha Moorchhanaa (mercurial compounds prepared with sulphur)
Nirgandha Moorchhanaa (mercurial compound prepared without sulphur)

Further there are two types of each

Saagni Moorchhanaa Process, which required heat
Niragni MoorchhanaaProcess which doesnt require heat

Parpat`ee Kalpanaa is the Sagandha Saagni MoorchhanaaParpat`ee is the Pot`a– Bandha of mercury. Parpat`ee Kalpanaa was first introduced in by Chakrapaan`i Dutta in the eleventh century. Parpat`ee term was derived from the word Parpat`a It means a thin brittle sheet which creates specific noise while breaking it.

Derivation of Parpat`ee:
Parpayati Gatim Laabhayati S`hithilaan Rasaadi Dhaatoon Iti Parpat`aakaarasadris`hatvaat Parpat`ee |

Definition of Parpat`ee:

Sadraavitaa Kajjalikaagniyogaat |
Rambhaapalaas`he Chipit`eekritaa Cha ||
Rasaagamadnyaih Khalu Parpat`ee Saa |
Prakeertitaa Parpat`ikaa Cha Saiva ||

R. T. Dviteeya Taranga 42

i.e Kajjalee is melted with the help of heat and at one stage it is poured on banana leaf and pressed immediately to get a hard, thin, brittle layer called as Parpat`ee. Here the term Kajjalee means a black coloured lustreless powder which is formed by triturating pure mercury and pure sulphur in given proportion without adding any liquid.

In the text Rasayogasaagara there art total 31 different Parpat`ee quoted. There names were derived from following:

First ingredient
Main ingredient
Disease for which it is used
Main action
Total number of ingredients
Name of God

Types of Parpat`ee:
It can be divided on the basis of:

  1. Ingredients used in it
  2. Paaka Pareekshaa

Ingredients used in it:

Parpat`ee with sulphur and mercury: It includes Parpat`ee which contains only mercury and sulphur i.e. Rasaparpat`ee
Parpat`ee which has mercury sulphur and some other substance in addition. e.g. Taamra Parpat`eeLoha Parpat`ee etc.
Parpat`ee without sulphur and Mercury: this type of Parpat`ee doesnt contain mercury and sulphur. But the manufacturing process and final product resembles Parpat`ee. e. g. S`hveta Parpat`ee
Parpat`ee with sulphur but without mercury: This type of Parpat`ee contains sulphur and some other substance but no mercury. e.g. Abhra Parpat`eeS`heetala Parpat`ee.

Paaka Pareekshaa:

  1. Mridu Paaka Parpat`ee (Soft)
  2. Madhya (Medium)
  3. Khara (Burnt)

Basic equipments required for the preparation of Parpat`ee:

Stone mortar & pestle It is required for the preparation of Kajjalee from pure mercury pure sulphur and other substances like Taamra Bhasma, Loha Bhasma etc.

Spoon with a long handle (Paalikaa Yantra) This spoon is called Paalikaa YantraPalikaa means one Pala i.e. approximately 40 gm. Thus only 40 gm is the capacity of that spoon. Its long handle should be horizontal. Generally the spoon is made up of iron or copper

Spatula Spatula that is made up of iron or wood is used to move the Kajjalee which is melting in the Paalikaa Yantra. In some cases specific wooden spatulas are used e. g. In case of Grahan`ee and Atisaara spatula made from the wood of Holarrhena antidysenterica is used.

Leaf Mostly Banana leaf is preferred. Two leaves are required for single preparation. One leaf is used as a base on which the melted Kajjalee is to be poured and the other one is used to cover and press the Kajjalee. If leaves of banana are not available then leaf of Nelumbo nucifera or of Calotropis procera or Ricinus communis can be used. In some preparations specific leaves are prescribed:

  • In preparation of Taamra Parpat`ee leaf of Calotropis procera is advised.
  • In preparation of Kravyaada Rasa Parpat`ee leaf of Ricinus communis is advised
  • In Sudhaasaara Parpat`ee leaf of Holarrhena antidysenterica is prescribed from these examples it can be said that these leaves may induce some positive properties in respective Parpat`ee.

Samput`a: Samput`a means the material used to cover the Parpat`ee from above and below. For that mainly cow dung is used. If not available buffalo dung or mud or wet cloth or floor can be used.

Heat required for the preparation: Heat plays an important role in the preparation of Parpat`ee. There are some specific terms used in the texts of Rasas`haastra regarding the type of fuel, nature of heat.

Preparation Procedure of Parpat`ee:

Tests of Parpat`ee:

Parpat`ee can be prepared in three different forms.

  1. Mridu (soft)
  2. Madhya (Medium)
  3. Khara (Burnt)

Tests to detect the forms:

  • Tests carried during melting process of Kajjalee
  1. Mridu Paaka: If the colour of Kajjalee becomes like feather of peacock (Mayoorachandrikaa) then Mridu Paaka Parpat`ee will form.
  2. Madhya Paaka: If Kajaalee looks oily in nature then Madhya Paaka Parpat`ee will form.
  3. Khara Paaka: If melted Kajjalee becomes reddish in colour then formed Parpat`ee will be of Khara Paaka
  • Tests carried after preparation of Parapt`ee.
  1. Mridu Paaka: Broken edge of the Parpat`ee will be zigzag in nature; otherwise it will bend instead of breaking.
  2. Madhya PaakaParpat`ee will break easily and will make a typical breaking noise. The broken edge will be straight.
  3. Khara PaakaParpat`ee will turn to reddish coloured powder. Khara Parpat`ee should always be avoided; it is said to be toxic. Exception- Rudra Parpat`ee

Standardization of Parpat`ee according to texts of Ayurveda:

Sound specific (kat`) braking noise
Touch smooth surface
Taste no taste
Smell smell of sulphur
Cut edge straight, regular shines like silver
Weight just equal to Kajjalee
Shine shining
Hardness hard due to immediate cooling after heating (melting)

Standards set through experience

If burned burns completely without leaving behind anything
If rubbed with gold Absence of whiteness of gold

Specifications regarding use of some Parpat`ee (Time/span):

Early in the morning Vijaya Parpat`ee
Bharan`ee Nakshatra Rasa Parpat`ee
Three days Taamra Parpat`ee
Thirty days Taamra Parpat`ee
Forty days Abhra Parpat`ee
Seven days – Panchaamrita Parpat`ee
Twenty one days Rasa Parpat`ee

Dose from 1 Gunjaa to 8 Gunjaa as per requirement Vardhamaana Parpat`ee from 1 Gunjaa to 10 Gunjaa daily (in increasing order) from 10 to 1 Gunjaa daily (in decreasing order) total 21 days

Some examples of Parpat`ee quoted in Rasagrantha:

NameIngredientsPreparation methodRefDoseRogghnata Does and Donts
Rasa Parpat`eeHingulottha Paarada and pure Gandhaka in equal proportionBhaavanaa Hingulottha Paarada triturated with Jayanti Svarasa Eran`d`a Kvaatha and Aardraka Svarasa for 3days and Gandhaka with Bhringaraaja Svarasa for 7 days and then Gandhaka is melted and poured in Bhringaraaja Svarasa and then Kajjalee is formedRasatarangin`i 6 tarangFrom Gunjaa to 10 Gunjaa in increasing orderUnmaada Raasnaamoola + Goghrita Puraan`as`h`aalee, Vrintaaka, Pat`ola, Godugdha, Aardraka, Apathya Amla, Tikta Sevan, cold water bath, KrodhaChintaa, Ushn`a Sevana
Apsmaara Braahmee Svarasa 
Ars`ha Gomootra 
Grahan`ee Hingu, Jeeraka
Vaataja JvaraDas`hmoola Kvaatha
LohaParpat`eeS`huddha Paarada Gandhaka and Loha Bhasma in equal proportionPaarada + Gandhaka Mardana Kajjalee + Loha Bhasma Mardhan KajjaleeBhaishajya RatnaavaleeStarting from 1 Gunjaa daily increase of 1 Gunjaa for 1 or 2 weeksGrahan`eePaan`d`oo Kaamalaa Kusht`haAamavaataRaajayakshmaa Cold water or Dhaanyajeeraka Kvaath Raktas`haaleeApthya Chintaa, Vidaahee Anna, Aatapasevana, intercourse
Svarn`aParpat`eeS`huddha Paarada Gandhakaa and Suvarn`a Bhasma in equal proportionPaarada + Suvarn`a Bhasma Mardana + GandhakaBhaishajya RatnaavaleeGunjaaGrahan`eeVrishyaS`hoola According to VyaadhiNo specific
Panchaamrita Parpat`eeS`huddha Gandhaka 8 TolaaS`huddha Paarada 4 TolaaLoha Bhasma 1 TolaaAbhraka Bhasma ½ TolaaTaamra Bhasma ¼ TolaaPaarada + Gandhaka Mardana Kajjalee and other BhasmaBhaishajya RatnaavaleeGunjaa or 21 days in Vardhamaana Parpat`ee patternGrahan`eeChhardi AtisaaraArs`haVrishyaNetra Roga 
Gagana Parpat`eeS`huddha Paarada Gandhakaa and Abhraka Basma in equal proportionThree ingredients are triturated in mortar by adding a little Goghrita in itRasayog saagaraGunjaaAll AtisaaraJeeraka and honey
Kaphaja S`hothaTrikat`u Choorn`a
Taamra Parpat`eeS`huddha Paarada Gandhaka and Taamra Bhasam – each 3 parts S`huddha Vatsanaabha 1 partFirst prepare the Kajjalee add some ghee and make a Kalka and do the Parpat`ee Paaka procedure leaf – ArkapatraRasayog saagara2,3 Gunjaa 21 daysRaajayakshmaa, Pippalee + Madhu
Kusht`haKhadira Kvaatha
Paan`d`ooTriphalaa kvaatha
Malla Parpat`eeRaala 4 Pala S`huddha Somala ½ PalaFirst melt Raala and then add Somala and make Parpat`eeRasayog saagara Bhrama Chhardi Kaphavaataja Vyaadhi  

Vd. Swati Gadgil,
M.D. (Rasashastra)

Last updated on February 26th, 2021 at 08:40 am

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