A. H. Ni.13, C. Su.18, M. Ni. 36, S. Chi. 23, C. Chi.12
- Utsedha Lingam S`hvayathum | A. H. Ni. 13/21
S`hotha is anything like swelling / edema / protuberance (morbid intumescences M/W) on the skin which is elevated on the normal level of skin
It is called by the synonyms like
- Utsedha (Utsanntvam Chakrapaan`i)
- Samhata S`hopha
Types of S`hotha:
Nija S`hotha 3 types
- Gaatra Avayava Aas`hrita
Aagantu S`hotha 3 types
- Gaatra Avayava Aas`hrita
Though, several classifications of S`hotha are possible, actually S`hotha is only one in number considering Utsedha Saamaanyatva (Swelling is a must sign in any type of S`hotha)
It may be of two, four, seven or eight types.
Types S. Chi. 23
S`hotha is of 6 types as per the body part on which it manifests (Avayava Samuttha / Ekaangaja S`hotha)
S`hotha which appears on whole body is Sarvasara (Sarvaangaja S`hotha)
It is of 5 types
Types A. H. Ni.13
- Prithu It resembles to Visarpa (Anunnata S`hotha).
- Unnata Valmeekavat; It will resemble to Vidradhi
- Grathita It may resemble to Granthi
1. Aggravated Vaayu vitiates Kapha, Rakta, Pitta after entering in to the peripheral vessels (Baahya Siraa).
As a result, the passage gets obstructed which spreads nearby causing swelling (Utsedha). This is S`hotha.
Swelling is the invariable characteristic feature of S`hotha.
If Dosha, afflict chest (Oordhva Sthaana), then the swelling appears at the upper body.
If Dosha afflict lower part of the body, which is the location of Vaayu, then swelling appears in the lower body part.
If this affliction take place in to the middle part of the body (between chest and the pelvic region / Basti), then swelling occurs in the middle part of the body.
If this affliction occurs all over the body then the swelling appears all over the physique.
If however, these afflictions take place in the specific areas, then the swelling appears locally and it is designated after the name of the body part where it occurs.E.g. Gala S`hotha.
2. Due to the aggravating factors, Dosha get aggravated.
These Dosha in turn vitiate Dhaatu and S`hotha (S`hvayathu) gets manifested all over the body.
3. Dosha situated in the Aamaas`haya produces S`hotha at the upper side of the body; when situated in the Pakvaas`haya, S`hotha manifested on middle of the body
When these Dosha are situated in the Varchasthaana, S`hotha manifests on the lower body
Whereas, Dosha situated in the whole body cause S`hotha all over the body
It is Sarvasara.
4. Vitiated Vaayu vitiates Pitta, Rakta, Kapha traversing them to peripheral vessels (Bahih Siraa).
These Dosha settle down in to Tvak and Maamsa as Vaayu is obstructed by Pitta, Rakta and Kapha. (Arun`a Datta A. H. Ni.13/21)
A body part at which this pathogenesis happens, nearby this stable, immovable swelling gets appeared.
This is S`hotha due to all the three Dosha.
Aggravated Vaayu due to its increasing factors, vitiates Tvak, Maamsa and S`hon`ita, then generates S`hotha.
Pitta aggravated due to its increasing factors, vitiates Tvak, Maamsa and S`hon`ita then generates S`hotha.
Kapha aggravated due to its aggravating factors, vitiates Tvak, Maamsa and S`hon`ita then generates S`hotha.
By combinations of Vaataja, Pittaja and Kaphaja S`hotha, Dvandvaja and Saannipaatika type of S`hotha are manifested.
The causative factors, signs and symptoms are same for S`hotha formed of respective Dosha.
Thus, by considering all the combinations of Dosha in S`hotha, 7 types of S`hotha are manifested.
The swelling which started of the feet and spreads all over the body in male, that which starts of face and spreads all over the body in female, and that which starts of perineum (Guhya Sthaana) in both male and female is very difficult to cure.
Also, S`hotha which has manifested with complications (Upadrava) is difficult to cure.
Carakaachaarya has mentioned some conditions as separate Vyaadhi under the S`hotha chapter, as listed below:
If the aggravated Kapha harbours at the root of the tongue, it causes immediate swelling.
If the aggravated Kapha harbours at the Kaakala (Taalu Moola Chakrapaan`i), it causes immediate swelling.
If the aggravated Kapha gets located at the outside of the throat, it causes swelling slowly.
If the aggravated Kapha gets located at the inside of the throat, it causes immediate swelling.
When the aggravated Pitta together with Rakta spreads within the skin, it causes red swelling called as Visarpa.
When the aggravated Pitta is located in the Tvak (skin) and Rakta, this causes red swelling which is called as Pid`akaa.
7. Tilakaa / Piplu / Vyamga / Neelikaa
When the aggravated Pitta gets dried up after reaching to the Rakta, it causes Tilakaa (Black Moles) / Piplu (Port wine mark) / Vyamga (Red Moles) / Neelikaa (Blue Moles).
In the temporal region when aggravated Pitta gets located in, the serous swelling caused is known as S`hankhaka.
9. Karn`amoola S`hotha
When aggravated Pitta resides at the root of the ear (Karn`a Moola), especially after fever (Jvara), it causes swelling which is difficult to cure and leads to death.
10. Pleehaa Vriddhi
When aggravated Vaayu disturbs the Pleehaa (Spleen), and slowly causes pain in the flanks which leads to the enlargement of the Spleen (Pleehaa Vridddhi)
When aggravated Vaayu resides in the sites at which Gulma is manifested (Naabhi, 2 Paars`hva, Hridaya, Basti), it produces S`hotha with pain is Gulma.
When the aggravated Vaayu moves from the Vamkshan`a to Vrishan`a (Testis), it generates swelling with pain, is called as Vriddhi.
When aggravated Vaayu gets localized within the skin and muscles, it causes swelling in the abdomen, which is Udara.
When aggravated Vaayu gets localized in Kukshi (Abdomen) and neither moves upward nor downwards, its Aanaaha.
When all the three Dosha get simultaneously aggravated and get located in the root of the tongue (Jihvaa Moola) causing burning sensation and swelling, result in more swelling and causes various types of pains. This acute disease is called as Rohin`ee.
The patient suffering from this disease can hardly survive for three nights. If however, he is quickly treated, a patient could be cured.
1. S`hirah S`hopha
This is caused by all the three Dosha.
This is caused by all the three Dosha, when they are aggravated at the inside of throat (Antargala).
This happens at the joint of neck and the face, chin and throat. This is associated with burning sensation and redness. When it surrounds the neck (Valayeekritaa) then it succumbs to this disease.
4. Taalu Vidradhi
All the three aggravated Dosha at the palate region (Taalu) produce an abscess with burning sensation, redness and suppuration, this is Taalu Vidradhi.
This is a swelling at exterior of the tongue on the upper side of tongue. This is due to vitiation of Kapha.
This is a swelling at the lower side of the tongue.
This is due to vitiation of Kapha.
Because of the aggravation of Pitta and Rakta, there is swelling in the gums (Danta Maamsa) which is called as Upakus`ha.
8. Danta Vidradhi
Accumulated Kapha and Rakta both cause swelling in the Danta Maamsa (gums). It is Danta Vidradhi.
If there is a single swelling in the side of neck then it is Galagan`d`a.
If there is a chain of the swellings at the side of the neck then it is Gan`d`amaalaa.
Both Galagan`d`a and Gan`d`amaalaa are curable.
But if they are associated with Peenasa, Paars`hvas`hoola, Kaasa, Jvara, Chchhardi then they become incurable.
It occurs in the particular part of the body because of vitiated Dosha.
The signs and symptoms are manifested according to the dominance of Dosha. There are pulsations as it is associated with vessels.
Granthi is a muscle tissue in large size (Mahaa Maamsa). It is painless. If Granthi is formed of Medas then it is unctuous and movable.
Copper (Taamra) coloured painful eruptions associated with discharge from their mouth is Alajee.
13. Charma Nakhaantara Roga
This is the swelling appears to the joint of skin and nail without any ulcer by vitiation of Maamsa and Rakta. It gets seriously and quickly suppurated.
This is an elongated swelling in the inguinal or axillary region, associated with fever, which is painless, hard to touch and expanded caused due to aggravated Kapha and Vaayu.
These are seen all over the body.
The swelling occurs due to Pitta and Kapha on the line of Yadnyopaveeta (The Sacred Thread of Hindus) [the line connecting the lateral part of the left shoulder with the bottom of the right side of chest and then round the back up to the top of the shoulder].
This is caused by aggravated Pitta and Kapha.
It is characterized by small eruptions all over the body and association with fever, burning sensation and excessive salivation (Praseka).
It is caused by aggravated Pitta and Kapha.
The eruptions are in the shape of Masoora (Red Gram).
19. Bradhna (Antra Vriddhi)
It is the swelling in the inguinal and scrotal region caused by Vaata, Pitta and Kapha. These are characterized by signs and symptoms of aggravated Dosha. The Antra enters in and exits out of the scrotal region repeatedly.
20. Mootra Vriddhi
If the scrotal swelling is filled with urine which is soft to touch, it is Mootra Vriddhi.
21. Medoja Vriddhi
If the scrotal swelling is caused by Medas which is hard and unctuous to touch, it is Medoja Vriddhi.
When the abscess with excessive pain at the anal region gets suppurated and bursts out, it leads to Bhagandara.
It is caused because of the vitiation of the Kapha, Maamsa and Rakta. It causes swelling in the calf region (Janghaa), lower part of the leg (Pin`d`i), front portion of the leg (Prapada).
24. Jaalaka Gardabha
- Mildly aggravated Dosha with dominance of Pitta cause serious type of swelling with mild suppuration of Rakta, which is Jaalakagardabha. This condition is associated with Jvara and Trishn`aa.
- Besides the swellings like Ashimaamsa, Arbuda etc. though they have their own distinct features (they are described as different diseases in the text) by their name and form, they can all be included under S`hotha because as swelling is the common feature.
- Gulma and all the disease which are described under S`hotha are also elaborated elsewhere in the text, they are described under S`hotha as there is a common factor like swelling appearing in all the above listed diseases. C. Su. 18/ 19-36; Chakrapaan`i (This is sort of Les`hokta description)
Generally, trauma aggravates Vaayu which along with Rakta in turn causes localized swelling with redness.
Upadrava (Complications) of S`hotha
Sthaanika S`hotha: Sampraapti Ghat`aka
|Upa jivhikaa||Kapha Prakopa||Jihvaa Moola|
|Gala s`hun`d`ikaa||Kapha Prakopa||Kaakala (Taalumoola)|
|Visarpa||PittaPrakopa(Sarpan`as`heela Dosha chakra.)||Rakta,Rasa||Tvak|
|Pid`akaa||Pitta Prakopa(Sthira Dosha chakra.)||Rasa, Rakta||Tvak|
|Tilakaa /Piplu / Vyamga / Neelikaa||Pitta Prakopa, Pitta S`hosha in Rakta||Rakta||Tvak|
|Karn`amoola S`hotha||PittaPrakopa||Rasa||Karn`a Moola|
|Gulma||VaataPrakopa||AllGulmaSthaana= (Naabhi,2 Paars`hva,Hridaya,Basti)|
|Udara||Vaata Prakopa||Rasa, Maamsa||Tvak, Maamsa|
|Rohin`ee||Vaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa||Jihvaa Moola|
|Shirah S`hopha||Vaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa||S`hira|
|S`haalooka||Vaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa||Antargal|
|Bid`aalikaa||Vaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa||Galasya Sandhau, chibuka, Hanu|
|Taalu vidradhi||Vaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa||Taalu|
|Upajihvikaa||Kapha Prakopa||Jihvaa Uparisht`aad|
|Adhijihvikaa||Kapha Prakopa||Jihvaa Adhastaad|
|Upakus`ha||Pitta Prakopa||Rakta||Danta Maamsa|
|Granthi||Vaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa||Maamsa, Medas||At specific site where Dosha accumulate.|
|CharmaNakhaantara Roga||Rakta, Maamsa||Charma Nakhaantara|
|Vidaarikaa||Kapha and Vaayu Prakopa||Vankshan`a, Kakshaa|
|Visphot`aka||All over the body (Sarva S`hareeraga)|
|Kakshaa||Pitta and Vaata Prakopa||On line of Yadnyopaveeta|
|Romaantikaa||Pitta and Kapha Prakopa||Sarva S`hareera|
|Masoorikaa||Pitta and Kapha Prakopa||Sarva Gaatra|
|Bradhna (Antra Vriddhi)||All the Dosha||Vrishan`a|
|S`hleepada||Kapha Prakopa||Rakta, Maamsa||Janghaa, Pin`di, Prapada Uparisht`aad|
|Jaalaka Gardabha||Aggravated Dosha with dominance of Pitta|
|Aagantu S`hotha||Vaayu||Rakta||Where the trauma occurs, Tvak|
Last updated on February 12th, 2021 at 07:09 am