Each science has its own conceptual frame, which comprises of various fundamental principles. It includes a number of specific technical terms. Those terms have a specific meaning in the context of that particular science. Such words are generally explained under the title of Thesaurus in texts or in the concerned database. In S`habdanidhi (means compilation of words) 600 principal, technical words are covered, which have specific meaning in context of Ayurveda. Consideringsynonyms it comprises of more than 1500 words. Many words are covered under other title word, e.g. you will get meaning of ‘Adhobhakta’, under the world ‘Aushadhakaala’ or meaning of ‘Sanchaya’ under the ‘Shat`kriyaa Kaala’. So while searching keywords follow the following guidelines.
S`habdanidhi is an innovative and extensive Thesaurus of fundamental terms in Ayurveda. It covers keywords meaning right from the Ayurvedic perspective to the contemporary meaning. It aims to display meanings of the terms in Ayurveda, and highlights various aspects such as related description, etymological or Sanskrit definition mentioned in compendia etc. Entries contain detailed meaning and are supplemented by supporting, relevant quotations from compendia. Technical terms are often a stumbling block for an easy perception of the concepts of any science to a beginner who has inadequate initiation or exposure. S`habdanidhi will definitely bridge the gap between the end user and different modules in AyuSoft. (Prakriti – Saarataa analysis, articles in encyclopedia etc.)
Extensive meaning of fundamental terms like Dosha, Dhaatu, Mala, Agni, Srotas, Marma, Oja etc. along with terms in anatomy, physiology and other branches of Ayurveda.
Provision of supplementary information e. g. While referring to Vihaara template, user can get detailed information about the word Vihaara from S`habdanidhi.
Multidimensional views of keyword ranging from etymology to clinical application e.g. The term Graahi is explained with examples like S`hun`t`hee (dry ginger) with disease specific indications (Atisaara – Diarrhea)
Search option based on alphabetically arranged keywords. It consists of a toolbar at the top, with buttons from A to Z. On the click of a button, a list of keywords starting with the caption of the button is displayed.
For example on the click of button A, the list of keywords starting with letter A is displayed. On click of the keyword, the details of the keyword will be displayed. Also user can search words starting from “A” in Search window e.g. Anoopa (As shown in following screen shot)
The details of the keyword are as follows:
Each word is explained under different fields.
- Keyword – Technical word
- Type – The meaning of words changes according to the particular context. Hence all selected words are classified under seven groups to describe that term in particular context. This ‘type’ field is helpful in capturing different shades of meanings e.g. the technical term ‘Rasa’ is described in different subjects of Ayurveda, which has specific meaning with respect to that subject or type. Different meanings of the word ‘Rasa’ with respect to subjects are as follows:
- Rasas`haastra – Mercury – widely used to prepare various Ayurvedic formulations after purification.
- Dravyagun`a (Materia Medica) – taste. The six tastes are described in Ayurveda (Sweet, Bitter, Sour etc.)
- S`haareera – First fluid body tissue / body constituents out of seven (Dhaatu)
Table: 1. Types and related abbreviations
|S`haareera||S.||Keywords related with S`hareera Rachanaa (Anatomy) and S`hareera Kriyaa (Physiology) are considered under this type e.g. Aartava , Meda etc.|
|Siddhaanta (Basic Principle)||B.P.||Fundamental terms in Ayurveda e.g. Des`ha, Kaala etc.|
|Rasa Bhaishajya||R.B.||Various primary medicinal and dietary preparations are covered under this type. E.g. Man`d`a (Scum of rice base recipe), Phaan`t`a (Cold infusion), Kashaaya (Decoction) etc.|
|Agada Tantra||A.T.||Terms related with toxicology are included under this type e.g. Agada (Anti poisonous agents), Visha (Toxicology, Poison) etc.|
|Chikitsaa||C.||Terms related with Disease management, Panchakarma and different treatment modalities are grouped under thistype e.g. Vamana (Emesis), S`hodhana (Purification therapy)|
|Streeroga- Baala Roga||S.B.||Terms related with Gynecological and Pediatrics are included under this type e.g. Dhaatree, Garbhaas`haya (uterus), Kreed`anaka|
|S`halya -S`haalaakya||S.S.||Technical words related with surgery and E.N.T. are considered in this type e.g. S`hira (head), Hridaya (heart)|
|Dravyagun`a||D.G.||Terminological words related with Dravyagun`a (Materia Medica) e.g. Abhishyandi, Anulomana|
|Nidaana||N.||Terms related with Diagnosis and associated factors e.g. Hetu (Causative factors), Sampraapti (Pathogenesis), Nidaanapanchaka|
Some words are classified under more than one group. In such cases other existing types are mentioned in the type field and description with respect to that type is covered under Elaboration field e.g. Aartava (ovum) is classified under the group S`haareera as well as Stree Roga– Baala Roga.
- Etymology / Definition – Grammatical origin or definitions of Keywords are described. In compendia most of the terms are specifically described with appropriate definition and grammatical origin.
e.g. Saatmya– wholesome / homologous (C.Vi.1/20).
Such a definition or grammatical origin is captured under this field. Respected commentaries illustrate most of the convoluted words for easy comprehension of meaning.
e.g. Abhishyandi– this term, as explained precisely in the commentary of Sus`hruta Samhitaa, is quoted.
These definitions are with reference to the commentaries for explaining their specific meaning and also for adhering to fundamentals.
- Reference-This field provides the related references of the technical term in compendia and concerned commentaries. These additional references bring more information about that particular word. Maximum possible cross-references are citied. Abbreviation guidelines about references are followed according to AyuSoft norms.
- Literary Meaning – This is the actual meaning of the Keyword, which is derived from Monier Williams Sanskrit – English Dictionary. Only relevant meaning in Ayurvedic perspective is captured. This field is helpful for comparing meaning in both contexts (Actual and Ayurveda perspective).
- Implied Meaning– Each Keyword has specific meaning in Ayurveda, which is described under this field.
e.g. Dosha – In general the actual meaning of Dosha is “deficiency” or “fault” etc., but in Ayurveda it is an important fundamental entity. Mostly this field is the translation of definition or etymology. The essence of the technical term is captured in the possible implied meaning.
- Elaboration -Often it is difficult to explain terms in limited words. Such terms need more elaboration. Extensive meaning and essential related information of Keywords is described under this field.
- Synonyms– Parallel terms are described in this field. In compendia various similar terms are used, which have the same meaning. All such terms are considered under this field to avoid repetition.
e.g. ‘Maamsa’ means flesh, which has synonyms like Pis`hita, Palala etc. User can search the word – ‘Maamsa’ by different synonyms also.
- Contemporary Colloquial – This aims at providing the meaning of that particular term in the context of contemporary sciences e.g. the meaning of ‘Rakta’ in modern medicine is blood. This field will help to correlate and understand fundamentals as well as other valuable, related information of the related words.
- Antonym – Opposite words, which always help in appropriation of the meaning of complex terms.
Scope and limitations
- S`habdanidhi is based on four basic compendia of Ayurveda.
In the knowledge repository of AyuSoft, huge data is interlinked to get various results in different modules. Fundamental terms are used frequently to provide information in various contexts. User can get meaning of basic terms, which are used in these modules from S`habdanidhi. Out of huge Ayurvedic terms, only fundamentally important and Keywords limited to AyuSoft context are explained in S`habdanidhi.
- All selected Keywords and definitions or etymologies are considered from four compendia and the concerned commentaries. (Refer to Table 2.)
Some primary words are described in these four compendia. However, extensive description is not found. In such cases wherever needed essential information from other Samhitaa like S`haarangadhara, Bhaavaprakaas`ha, Asht`aanga Samgraha is considered.
- All technical words related with nine basic categories of data of AyuSoft are not included in S`habdhanidhi, but they are explained in “help” related with Anveshaka.
Transliteration policy -For Sanskrit terms, specific rules are adopted. Those terms are in italics.
Table: 2. Referred Texts and Commentaries
|NO||REFERENCE TEXTS||REFERRED COMMENTARY||COMMENTATOR|
|1||Charaka Samhitaa||Ayurveda Deepikaa||Chakrapaan`idatta|
|2||Sus`ruta Samhitaa||Nibandha Sangraha||D`ahlan`a|
|3||Asht`aanga Hridaya||Ayurveda Rasaayana||Hemaadri|
|4||Maadhava Nidaana||Madhukosha||Vijayarakshita and S`hreekan`t`hadatta|
|8||Ayurvediya S`habdakosha Part1 /2|
Last updated on April 11th, 2022 at 04:43 am