The Charaka Samhitaa and Sus`hruta Samhitaa are considered to represent the basic schools of medicine and surgery respectively. Vaagbhat`a is well known for his compilation skills in Naatisamkshepavistaara manner. Sus`hruta Samhitaa is one of the most ancient, encyclopedic and authoritative classical books of Indian medicine and surgery.
Introduction of Sus`hruta Samhitaa: –
The present Sus`hruta Samhitaa has undergone a number of modifications by different Aachaarya_s. Serially those are Dhanvantaree Prathama, Dhanvantaree Dvitiya, and Dhanvantaree Truteeya (Kaas`hiraaja Divodaasa), who received Ayurveda from divine sources – Brahma via Prajaapati, the two As`hvineekumaara and Indra. Kaas`hiraaja Divodaasa taught the Ayurveda to his followers such as Aupadhenava, Vaitaran`a, Aurabhra, Paushkalaavata, Karveerya, Gopurakshita, Sus`hruta. Among these Sus`hruta wrote the Sus`hruta Samhitaa. Naagaarjuna is considered as Pratisamskartaa of Sus`hruta Samhitaa. Chandrat`a made Paathas`huddhi of Sus`hruta Samhitaa.
Period of the various Aachaarya_s is considered as follows:
- Divodaasa Dhanvantaree – 1500-1000 B.C.
- Sus`hruta – 2nd Century A.D.
- Naagarjuna – 5th Century A.D.
- Chandrat`a – 10th Century A.D.
Sus`hruta is stated to be the son of Vis`hvaamitra in the Sus`hruta Samhita. The exact identity of this Vis`hvaamitra is not known clearly Sus`hruta was sent to study Ayurveda with special emphasis on S`halya (surgery) under Divodaasa Dhanvantaree.
Contents of Sus`hruta Samhitaa: –
The Original Sus`hruta Samhitaa consisted of one hundred and twenty chapters in five sections as follows: –
Sootrasthaana _ 46 chapters
Nidaanasthaana _ 16 Chapters
S`haareerasthaana _ 10 Chapters
Chikitsaasthaana _ 40 Chapters
Kalpasthaana _ 08 Chapters
Uttaratantra does not find place in the original Sus`hruta Samhitaa as it was supplemented later on and it contains 66 Chapters.
Salient Features of Sootrasthaana: –
In the first chapter S`halyatantra Sampradaaya (Dhanvantaree Sampradaaya), Asht`aanga Ayurveda with special reference to S`halya has been explained. This sthaana deals with basic concepts of S`halyatantra. Yantra_s and S`hastra_s, Kshaara, Agnikarma, Jalaukaa etc. Sootrasthaana also contains Ritucharyaa,Pathyaapathya, Shad`vidha Kriyaakaala, Vyaadhibheda, Arisht`a, Drava-Dravya, Aahaara.
Salient Features of Nidaanasthaana: –
It deals with Nidaana of Vaatavyaadhi, Ars`ha, As`hmaree, Bhagandara, Kusht`ha, Prameha, Udararoga, Mood`hagarbha, Vidradhi, Visarpa, Naad`eeroga, Stanaroga, Granthi, Apachi, Arbuda, Vridhee, Upadans`ha, S`hleepada, Kshudraroga, S`hookadosha, Bhagna, Mukharoga.
Salient Features of S`haareerasthaana: –
It deals with Avyakta Nirupan`a, description of S`hukra, Aartava, Garbhas`haareera, different body parts, Marma, Srotasa etc. It also deals with description of conception, delivery etc.
Salient Features of Chikitsaasthaana: –
This Sthaana deals with treatment of diseases mentioned in Nidaanasthaana, Vran`a Chikitsaa, Rasaayana, vaajeekaran`a Chikitsaa, Snehana, Svedana, Panchakarma etc.
Salient Features of Kalpasthaana: –
Kalpa Sthaana of Sus`hruta Samhitaa is unique feature as it deals with Agadatantra only i.e. poisoning by various ways and its management. It includes description of Sthaavara and Jangama Visha and treatment of all types of Visha.
Salient Features of Uttarasthaana: –
It deals with S`haalaakya, Baalaroga, Kaayachikitsaa, Svasthavrutta, Bhootavidyaa, and Tantrayuktee.
Characteristic Features of Sus`hruta Samhitaa: –
- Sus`hruta ordains that anyone who wants to attain surgical skills should study anatomy by practical observation of the various structures composing the body. The study of anatomy is dealt with in the S`haareerasthaana of the Sus`hruta Samhitaa. He proposed first to deal with embryology and then anatomy of human body, which is an extension of the embryo. He further deals with obstetrics and embryology together. After this, the Samhitaa describes the sequential development of the structures of the foetus.
- Sus`hruta is known as the father of surgery and in Sus`hruta Samhitaa various surgical procedures are explained along with plastic surgery of ear, nose etc. For this study of anatomy, Sus`hruta advocates dissection of dead body. Sus`hruta describes Yogyaa for practicing various surgical procedures.
- It describes the ideal design / plan / arrangement of Vran`itaagaara, Kumaaraagaara, Sutikaagaara.
- It deals with description of different Yantra and Anuyantra as well as S`hastra and Anus`hastra. Sus`hruta for the first time named Yantra and S`hastra as Kaakamukhee S`hastra, Gomukhee Yantra etc. depending upon the similarity of the instrument with the corresponding animal or bird.
- This Samhitaa describes sixty Vran`a Upakrama.
- It describes Vaata, Pitta, Kapha, and Rakta as fourth Dosha. It describes five types of Pitta for the first time.
- It describes Shat`kriyaakaala.
- It describes Laagharaka Roga for the first time.
- It describes use of Tailadron`ee for Vaatavyaadhi.
- It describes use of Visha dravya_s for treatment.
- Sus`hruta describes basic six varieties of accidental injuries encompassing almost all parts of the body.
- Sus`hruta also gives classification of the bones and their reaction to injuries. Varieties of dislocation of joints (Sandhimukta) and fractures of the shaft (Kaan`d`a-bhagna) are given systematically. He classifies and gives the details of the six types of dislocations and twelve varieties of fractures. He gives the principles of fracture treatment.
- Sammohana Dravya_s (Anesthetic drugs) has been mentioned in this Samhitaa.
- Sus`hruta Samhitaa covers a vast portion of knowledge of Ayurveda and acquired place among main three comprehensive classics of Ayurveda known as Brihattrayee.
Commentators of Sus`hruta Samhitaa: –
D`alhan`a – Nibandhasamgraha.
Chakrapaan`i – Bhaanumatee
Gayaadaasa – Nyaayachandrikaa (Panjikaa).
Haaraan`achandra – Sus`hrutaarthasandeepana.
Last updated on May 7th, 2021 at 11:40 am