विषय सूची पर जायें


A. H. Ni.13, C. Su.18, M. Ni. 36, S. Chi. 23, C. Chi.12


  • Utsedha Lingam S`hvayathum | A. H. Ni. 13/21


शोथ is anything like swelling / edema / protuberance (morbid intumescences M/W) on the skin which is elevated on the normal level of skin

It is called by the synonyms like

  1. Utsedha (Utsanntvam Chakrapaan`i)
  2. Samhata S`hopha
  3. S`hvayathu

Types of शोथ:

  1. Vaataja
  2. Pittaja
  3. S`hleshmaja
  4. VaataPittaja
  5. VaataKaphaja
  6. KaphaPittaja
  7. Saannipaatika
  1. Nija
  2. Aagantu
  1. Ekaangaja
  2. Sarvaangaja

Nija S`hotha 3 types

  1. Sarvaangaja
  2. Ardhaangaja
  3. Gaatra Avayava Aas`hrita

Aagantu S`hotha 3 types

  1. Sarvaangaja
  2. Ardhaangaja
  3. Gaatra Avayava Aas`hrita

Though, several classifications of शोथ are possible, actually शोथ is only one in number considering Utsedha Saamaanyatva (Swelling is a must sign in any type of शोथ)

It may be of two, four, seven or eight types.

Types S. Chi. 23

 शोथ is of 6 types as per the body part on which it manifests (Avayava Samuttha / Ekaangaja S`hotha)
 शोथ which appears on whole body is Sarvasara (Sarvaangaja S`hotha)

It is of 5 types

  1. Vaataja
  2. Pittaja
  3. Kaphaja
  4. Saannipaatika
  5. Vishaja

Types A. H. Ni.13

  • Prithu It resembles to विसर्प (Anunnata S`hotha).
  • Unnata Valmeekavat; It will resemble to विद्रधि
  • Grathita It may resemble to Granthi


1. Aggravated Vaayu vitiates Kapha, Rakta, Pitta after entering in to the peripheral vessels (Baahya Siraa).
As a result, the passage gets obstructed which spreads nearby causing swelling (Utsedha). This is शोथ.
Swelling is the invariable characteristic feature of शोथ.
If Dosha, afflict chest (Oordhva Sthaana), then the swelling appears at the upper body.
If Dosha afflict lower part of the body, which is the location of Vaayu, then swelling appears in the lower body part.
If this affliction take place in to the middle part of the body (between chest and the pelvic region / Basti), then swelling occurs in the middle part of the body.
If this affliction occurs all over the body then the swelling appears all over the physique.
If however, these afflictions take place in the specific areas, then the swelling appears locally and it is designated after the name of the body part where it occurs.E.g. Gala S`hotha.

2. Due to the aggravating factors, Dosha get aggravated.
These Dosha in turn vitiate Dhaatu and शोथ (S`hvayathu) gets manifested all over the body.

3.  Dosha situated in the Aamaas`haya produces शोथ at the upper side of the body; when situated in the Pakvaas`hayaशोथ manifested on middle of the body
When these Dosha are situated in the Varchasthaanaशोथ manifests on the lower body
Whereas, Dosha situated in the whole body cause शोथ all over the body
It is Sarvasara.

4. Vitiated Vaayu vitiates PittaRaktaKapha traversing them to peripheral vessels (Bahih Siraa).
These Dosha settle down in to Tvak and Maamsa as Vaayu is obstructed by Pitta, Rakta and Kapha. (Arun`a Datta A. H. Ni.13/21)
A body part at which this pathogenesis happens, nearby this stable, immovable swelling gets appeared.
This is शोथ due to all the three Dosha.

Vaataja S`hotha
Aggravated Vaayu due to its increasing factors, vitiates Tvak, Maamsa and S`hon`ita, then generates शोथ.

Pittaja S`hotha
Pitta aggravated due to its increasing factors, vitiates Tvak, Maamsa and S`hon`ita then generates शोथ.

Kaphaja S`hotha
Kapha aggravated due to its aggravating factors, vitiates Tvak, Maamsa and S`hon`ita then generates शोथ.
By combinations of Vaataja, Pittaja and Kaphaja S`hothaDvandvaja and Saannipaatika type of शोथ are manifested.
The causative factors, signs and symptoms are same for शोथ formed of respective Dosha.
Thus, by considering all the combinations of Dosha in शोथ, 7 types of शोथ are manifested.
The swelling which started of the feet and spreads all over the body in male, that which starts of face and spreads all over the body in female, and that which starts of perineum (Guhya Sthaana) in both male and female is very difficult to cure.
Also, शोथ which has manifested with complications (Upadrava) is difficult to cure.
Carakaachaarya has mentioned some conditions as separate Vyaadhi under the शोथ chapter, as listed below:

1. Upajhvikaa
If the aggravated Kapha harbours at the root of the tongue, it causes immediate swelling.

2. Galas`hun`d`kaa
If the aggravated Kapha harbours at the Kaakala (Taalu Moola Chakrapaan`i), it causes immediate swelling.

3. Galagan`d`a
If the aggravated Kapha gets located at the outside of the throat, it causes swelling slowly.

4. Galagraha
If the aggravated Kapha gets located at the inside of the throat, it causes immediate swelling.

5. विसर्प
When the aggravated Pitta together with Rakta spreads within the skin, it causes red swelling called as विसर्प.

6. Pid`akaa
When the aggravated Pitta is located in the Tvak (skin) and Rakta, this causes red swelling which is called as Pid`akaa.

7. Tilakaa / Piplu / Vyamga / Neelikaa
When the aggravated Pitta gets dried up after reaching to the Rakta, it causes Tilakaa (Black Moles) / Piplu (Port wine mark) / Vyamga (Red Moles) / Neelikaa (Blue Moles).

8. S`hamkhaka
In the temporal region when aggravated Pitta gets located in, the serous swelling caused is known as S`hankhaka.

9. Karn`amoola S`hotha
When aggravated Pitta resides at the root of the ear (Karn`a Moola), especially after fever (ज्वर), it causes swelling which is difficult to cure and leads to death.

10. Pleehaa Vriddhi
When aggravated Vaayu disturbs the Pleehaa (Spleen), and slowly causes pain in the flanks which leads to the enlargement of the Spleen (Pleehaa Vridddhi)

11. गुल्म
When aggravated Vaayu resides in the sites at which गुल्म is manifested (Naabhi, 2 Paars`hva, Hridaya, Basti), it produces शोथ with pain is गुल्म.

12. वृद्धि
When the aggravated Vaayu moves from the Vamkshan`a to Vrishan`a (Testis), it generates swelling with pain, is called as वृद्धि.

13. उदर
When aggravated Vaayu gets localized within the skin and muscles, it causes swelling in the abdomen, which is उदर.

14. आनाह
When aggravated Vaayu gets localized in Kukshi (Abdomen) and neither moves upward nor downwards, its आनाह.

15. Rohin`ee
When all the three Dosha get simultaneously aggravated and get located in the root of the tongue (Jihvaa Moola) causing burning sensation and swelling, result in more swelling and causes various types of pains. This acute disease is called as Rohin`ee.
The patient suffering from this disease can hardly survive for three nights. If however, he is quickly treated, a patient could be cured.


1. S`hirah S`hopha
This is caused by all the three Dosha.

2. S`haalooka
This is caused by all the three Dosha, when they are aggravated at the inside of throat (Antargala).

3. Bid`aalikaa
This happens at the joint of neck and the face, chin and throat. This is associated with burning sensation and redness. When it surrounds the neck (Valayeekritaa) then it succumbs to this disease.

4. Taalu Vidradhi
All the three aggravated Dosha at the palate region (Taalu) produce an abscess with burning sensation, redness and suppuration, this is Taalu विद्रधि.

5. Upajihvikaa
This is a swelling at exterior of the tongue on the upper side of tongue. This is due to vitiation of Kapha.

6. Adhijihvikaa
This is a swelling at the lower side of the tongue.
This is due to vitiation of Kapha.

7. Upakus`ha
Because of the aggravation of Pitta and Rakta, there is swelling in the gums (Danta Maamsa) which is called as Upakus`ha.

8. Danta Vidradhi
Accumulated Kapha and Rakta both cause swelling in the Danta Maamsa (gums). It is Danta Vidradhi.

9. Galagan`d`a
If there is a single swelling in the side of neck then it is Galagan`d`a.

10. Gan`d`amaalaa
 If there is a chain of the swellings at the side of the neck then it is Gan`d`amaalaa.
Both Galagan`d`a and Gan`d`amaalaa are curable.
But if they are associated with Peenasa, Paars`hvas`hoola, Kaasa, Jvara, Chchhardi then they become incurable.

11. Granthi
It occurs in the particular part of the body because of vitiated Dosha.
The signs and symptoms are manifested according to the dominance of Dosha. There are pulsations as it is associated with vessels.
Granthi is a muscle tissue in large size (Mahaa Maamsa). It is painless. If Granthi is formed of Medas then it is unctuous and movable.

12. Alajee
Copper (Taamra) coloured painful eruptions associated with discharge from their mouth is Alajee.

13. Charma Nakhaantara Roga
This is the swelling appears to the joint of skin and nail without any ulcer by vitiation of Maamsa and Rakta. It gets seriously and quickly suppurated.

14. Vidaarikaa
This is an elongated swelling in the inguinal or axillary region, associated with fever, which is painless, hard to touch and expanded caused due to aggravated Kapha and Vaayu.

15. Visphot`aka
These are seen all over the body.

16. Kakshaa
The swelling occurs due to Pitta and Kapha on the line of Yadnyopaveeta (The Sacred Thread of Hindus) [the line connecting the lateral part of the left shoulder with the bottom of the right side of chest and then round the back up to the top of the shoulder].

17. रोमान्तिका
This is caused by aggravated Pitta and Kapha.
It is characterized by small eruptions all over the body and association with fever, burning sensation and excessive salivation (Praseka).

18. मसूरिका
It is caused by aggravated Pitta and Kapha.
The eruptions are in the shape of Masoora (Red Gram).

19. Bradhna (Antra Vriddhi)
It is the swelling in the inguinal and scrotal region caused by Vaata, Pitta and Kapha. These are characterized by signs and symptoms of aggravated Dosha. The Antra enters in and exits out of the scrotal region repeatedly.

20. Mootra Vriddhi
If the scrotal swelling is filled with urine which is soft to touch, it is Mootra Vriddhi.

21. Medoja Vriddhi
If the scrotal swelling is caused by Medas which is hard and unctuous to touch, it is Medoja Vriddhi.

22. भगन्दर
When the abscess with excessive pain at the anal region gets suppurated and bursts out, it leads to भगन्दर.

23. S`hleepada
It is caused because of the vitiation of the Kapha, Maamsa and Rakta. It causes swelling in the calf region (Janghaa), lower part of the leg (Pin`d`i), front portion of the leg (Prapada).

24. Jaalaka Gardabha

  • Mildly aggravated Dosha with dominance of Pitta cause serious type of swelling with mild suppuration of Rakta, which is Jaalakagardabha. This condition is associated with ज्वर and तृष्णा.
  • Besides the swellings like Ashimaamsa, Arbuda etc. though they have their own distinct features (they are described as different diseases in the text) by their name and form, they can all be included under शोथ because as swelling is the common feature.
  • गुल्म and all the disease which are described under शोथ are also elaborated elsewhere in the text, they are described under शोथ as there is a common factor like swelling appearing in all the above listed diseases. C. Su. 18/ 19-36; Chakrapaan`i (This is sort of Les`hokta description)

Aagantu S`hotha
Generally, trauma aggravates Vaayu which along with Rakta in turn causes localized swelling with redness.

Upadrava (Complications) of S`hotha


Sthaanika S`hotha: Sampraapti Ghat`aka

 DoshaDhaatuMalaVyakti Sthaana
Upa jivhikaaKapha Prakopa  Jihvaa Moola
Gala s`hun`d`ikaaKapha Prakopa  Kaakala (Taalumoola)
Galagan`d`aKaphaPrakopa  Gala Baahya
GalagrahaKapha Prakopa  Antargala
विसर्पPittaPrakopa(Sarpan`as`heela Dosha chakra.)Rakta,Rasa Tvak
Pid`akaaPitta Prakopa(Sthira Dosha chakra.)Rasa, Rakta Tvak
Tilakaa /Piplu / Vyamga / NeelikaaPitta Prakopa, Pitta S`hosha in RaktaRakta Tvak
S`hamkhakaPitta Prakopa  Shamkhaka
Karn`amoola S`hothaPittaPrakopaRasa Karn`a Moola
Pleehaaवृद्धिVaataPrakopaRakta Paars`hva
गुल्मVaataPrakopa  Allगुल्मSthaana= (Naabhi,2 Paars`hva,Hridaya,Basti)
वृद्धिVaataPrakopa  Vrishan`a
उदरVaata PrakopaRasa, Maamsa Tvak, Maamsa
आनाहVaata Prakopa  Kukshi
Rohin`eeVaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa  Jihvaa Moola
Shirah S`hophaVaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa  S`hira
S`haalookaVaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa  Antargal
Bid`aalikaaVaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa  Galasya Sandhau, chibuka, Hanu
Taalu vidradhiVaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha Prakopa  Taalu
UpajihvikaaKapha Prakopa  Jihvaa Uparisht`aad
AdhijihvikaaKapha Prakopa  Jihvaa Adhastaad
Upakus`haPitta PrakopaRakta Danta Maamsa
Danta Vidradhi    
GranthiVaata Prakopa, Pitta Prakopa, Kapha PrakopaMaamsa, Medas At specific site where Dosha accumulate.
CharmaNakhaantara Roga Rakta, Maamsa Charma Nakhaantara
VidaarikaaKapha and Vaayu Prakopa  Vankshan`a, Kakshaa
Visphot`aka   All over the body (Sarva S`hareeraga)
KakshaaPitta and Vaata Prakopa  On line of Yadnyopaveeta
रोमान्तिकाPitta and Kapha Prakopa  Sarva S`hareera
मसूरिकाPitta and Kapha Prakopa  Sarva Gaatra
Bradhna (Antra Vriddhi)All the Dosha  Vrishan`a
Mootra Vriddhi  MootraVrishan`a
Medoja Vriddhi Medas Vrishan`a
भगन्दर   Gudasya Paars`hve
S`hleepadaKapha PrakopaRakta, Maamsa Janghaa, Pin`di, Prapada Uparisht`aad
Jaalaka GardabhaAggravated Dosha with dominance of Pitta   
Aagantu S`hothaVaayuRakta Where the trauma occurs, Tvak

Last updated on February 12th, 2021 at 07:09 am

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