C.Ni.8, C.Chi.10, S.U.61, A.H.U.7, M.Ni.21
अपस्मार is a disease in which memory (Smriti), intellect (Buddhi) and mind (Sattva) get flowed out all together and there are disgusting movements by the patient. This is a momentary phase (Aavasthika) in which the patient gropes in the dark (Tamah Praves`ha). This is an occasional unconsciousness, which is associated with disgusting movements like frothy vomiting, breaking pain. These are the cardinal symptoms of the अपस्मार. As one can not see in the dark, likewise the patient can not understand anything in this state (i.e. unconscious state).
Apasmaaram Punah Smriti Buddhi Sattva Samplavaad Bheebhtsa Chesht`am Aavasthikam Tamah Praves`ham Aachakshate |
Smriteh Apagamam Praahuh Apasmaaram Bhishagvidah |
Tamah Praves`ham Beebhtsachesht`am Dhee Sattva Samplavaat ||
Apa S`habdo Gamanaarthah; Smaarah Smaran`am, Apagarah Smaro Yasmin Roge Sa Apasmaarah | S.U.61 D`alhan`a
Smritih Bhootaarthavidnyaanam Apah cha Parivarjane |
Apasmaara iti Proktah Tato Ayam Vhaadhih Antakrit ||
Smriti is recollection of past objects and Apa means elimination or loss. Thus, अपस्मार is defined as loss of memory. This disease leads to death.
Smriti Apaayo hi Apasmaarah |
A disease in which memory is lost is अपस्मार.
Chintaa S`hoka Aadibhih Doshaah Kriddhaa Hrit Srotasi Sthitaah |Kritvaa Smriteh Apadhvamsam Apasmaaram Prakurvate ||
अपस्मार is a disease in which memory (Smriti), intellect (Buddhi) and mind (Sattva) get flowed out all together and there are disgusting movements by the patient. This is a momentary phase (Aavasthika) in which the patient gropes in the dark (Tamah Praves`ha).
Following type of people are more prone to अपस्मार.
- Whose mind is afflicted by Rajas and Tamas (Rajastamobhyaam Upahata Chetas),
- When the Dosha are highly aggravated (Samudbhraanta) and their equilibrium is disturbed (Vishama),
- When an individual takes unclean food having unwholesome ingredients possessing mutually contradictory properties or touched by the unclean people who are infected with contagious diseases,
- People not obeying the dietetic rules like Asht`au Aahaara Vidhi Vis`hesha Aayatana,
- Having unhealthy regimens and behavior and suffer from excessive debility.
With these conditions, aggravated Dosha penetrate at the site of the Great Soul (Antaraatmaa i. e. Hridaya and the resting place of senses, Indriya Aayatana), in a person whose mind is afflicted by Rajas and Tamas .While staying there, these Dosha_s, getaggravated by desire (Kaama), anger (Krodha), fear (Bhaya), greed (Lobha), perplexity (Moha), joy (Harsha), sorrow (S`hoka), anxiety (Chintaa), agitation (Udvega) and all of a sudden spread throughout the heart and the sense organs, which lead to the loss of memory (Apasmarati). This is a paroxysm of अपस्मार.
Lakshan`a: When the Dosha located in the Dhamanee, afflict the heart and cause disturbances in the functions the affected person is afflicted with agitation (Vyathaa), wandering mind (Bhraanta Chetas) etc.
That person visualizes non existent forms,
Falls down and gets tremors.
His eyes, tongue, eyebrows become distorted.
Saliva comes out of his mouth.
His hands and legs become convulsed.
When the paroxysm is over, he regains consciousness as if he is getting up from sleep.
Description of Doshaja Types:
The aggravated Dosha_s cause paroxysms in fifteen days, twelve days or in a month. The paroxysm may however take place even at shorter intervals.
Dosha are aggravated due to faulty and excessive use of sense objects and actions, incompatible, dirty food and also due to indulgence in lust, fear, agitation, anger, grief etc. Mind of the People who are in the habit of suppressing urges, who take unwholesome and dirty food, are overpowered by Rajas and Tamas and perform coitus with menstruating woman get affected and they suffer from अपस्मार.
In अपस्मार, Sattva gets suppressed by Rajas and Tamas. Here Sattva refers to an attribute of Mind. Though Sattva refers to the mind it is also denoted by different words. (Ch. Chi. 10/5)
There it has been said that Manas gets afflicted by Chintaa etc. In a person whose mind is destructed due to anxiety (Chintaa), sorrow (S`hoka), and fear (Bhaya) and hence intellect and Sattva flow out, Doshaa_s aggravated like उन्माद spread in Hridaya and channel affecting psychological traits (Sandnyaavaha Srotas). In this condition, a person behaves loathsome and gropes in the dark. There is a frothy vomiting, he behaves convulsively by moving hands and feet, has hallucinations, falls down on, his tongue, eyes, eyebrows get distorted. When the force of the Doshaa_s gets reduced he gets up as if he was asleep. This paroxysm may happen after a period.
At times, Doshaja Apasmaara is associated with Aagantu factors (Exogenous Causes). अपस्मार due to Aagantu causes has symptoms due to the vitiation of the Dosha_s, which manifest themselves in addition to those caused by Aagantu Hetu_s. Unlike उन्माद, there is no special category of अपस्मार due to Aagantu factors. Only additional symptoms are manifested in the four types of अपस्मार, when they are associated with the Doshaja types of अपस्मार.
When the अपस्मार is associated with the Aagantu factors, it needs to be treated with such therapies, that would bring the vitiated Doshaa_s to their normal state; also simultaneously therapies that can correct the Aagantu factors.
According to some Aachaarya, अपस्मार is not caused by Dosha_s but it is Aagantu as it appears suddenly without any apparent cause and it also subsides on its own without any treatment. There is also scriptural evidence that अपस्मार is Aagantu and not Doshaja. But there are other views, which prove that Apasmaara is Doshaja only and not Aagantuja.
Dosha_s are responsible for this disease as they are gradually aggravated. These Dosha_s are momentarily aggravated, which when paroxysm gets reduced themselves and it looks as if the disease is cured without any treatment. There is presence of the signs and symptoms of Dosha, Mano Dosha viz. Rajas and Tamas. Hence it is a disease, which is manifested due to Dosha only. It is not due to Aagantu factors.
Cause of paroxysms in अपस्मार
As in spite of rains some seeds remain dormant under the ground and get sprouted in a specific season, origin of अपस्मार is also similar. Dosha though they permanently exist in the body; they aggravate in a specific period and exhibit disorders in various forms by nature.
Last updated on February 9th, 2021 at 07:24 am