विषय सूची पर जायें



उन्माद is a disease, which is characterized by perturbation / confusion (Vibhrama) of mind (Manas), intellect (Buddhi), consciousness (Sandnyaa), knowledge (Dnyaana), memory (Smriti), desire (Bhakti), manner (S`heela), behavior (Chesht`aa), conduct (Aachaara). This is cardinal sign of उन्माद.

In उन्माद there is unsteadiness in DheeVidnyaana and Smriti. A person does not have good or bad feelings about favourable or unfavourable conditions. He keeps wandering like a chariot without charioteer. His activities are without any intention.

उन्माद was observed in the spiritual rite carried out by Daksha Prajaapati after the occurrence of कुष्ठ.


  1. Samudbhramam Buddhimanahsmriteenaam Unmaadam Aagantu Nijottham Aahuh | Ch. Chi. 9/8
    Mano Vibhrama (perversion of mind) is nothing but a state in which the person thinks of things which he would never have thought of otherwise. This Mano Vibhrama includes perversion in the entities like Smriti etc. explained in निदान Sthaana in Charaka Samhitaa.
  2. Madayanti Uddha (dga) taa Doshaah Yasmaad Unmaargam Aas`hritaah |
    Maanaso Ayam Iti Vyaadhih Unmaada Iti Kirtitah || Su.U.62/3; M.N.20/1
  3. Manaso yo Madah Sa Unmaado Naama Roga Uchyate | A.H.Ni.6/1 Arun`adatta
    Hilarity in mind is nothing but उन्माद.


       Mano Vibhrama
In this state a person does not think of a thing which is worth thinking and thinks of what he should not think. This is perversion of functions of mind.

       Buddhi Vibhrama
Due to perversion of intellect, a person thinks that eternal things are ephemeral, and momentary things are eternal. Likewise, he hates the beloved ones and loves the hated ones.

       Sandnyaa Dnyaana Vibhrama
Due to perversion in Sandnyaa and Dnyaana, a person is unable to perceive the burns caused by fire.

       Smriti Vibhrama
This is perversion of memory. A person does not memorize or memorizes incorrectly.

       Bhakti Vibhrama
Bhakti is Ichchha i.e. desire. Perversion in desire makes previously desired things undesirable.

       S`heela Vibhrama
If a person is cool and calm, then due to perversion in S`heela, he becomes angry.

       Chesht`aa Vibhrama
Due to perversion in behaviour, a person indulges in undesirable activities.

       Aachaara Vibhrama
Due to perversion of conduct, a person behaves in antireligious activities.

The perversion is caused by the Dosha or endogenous cause. Actually, no supernatural cause as god, Gandharva etc afflict the person who himself is free from sinful deeds. However these entities affect person with sinful acts and low physical and mental capabilities. The primary causes of उन्माद in an individual are his own misdeeds and other agents like the gods act only as the consequence of these misdeeds.

It means that as उन्माद is caused by misdeeds of a person, they can not be again caused by gods etc. So actually, a person himself is responsible for उन्माद and not the other entities. Therefore Aayurveda denies supernatural origin of Unmaada.

It concludes that उन्माद is a Pradnyaaparaadhaja disease causes due to the misconducts in DheeDhritiSmriti. Prayers of god and resorting to wholesome regimens act as antidote to the misdeeds of an individual. Thus the power to avert or to invite उन्माद lies with the individual himself.

A person who abstains from eating meat and drinking alcohol and takes only wholesome food, who is disciplined and pure and who has strong will power does not get afflicted by Nija or Aagantu factors.

उन्माद Types

CharakaSus`hruta & Madhava NidaanaVaagbhat`a
AagantujaMaanasa DuhkhajaAadhija

(Sus`hruta has not counted Vishaja Unmaada while enumerating the types, but has explained Vishaja Unmaada differently as it requires a different treatment.)

उन्माद at the stage of manifestation when the disease is new with fewer symptoms is called मद.

Vishaja Unmaada
In this type of उन्माद, eyes get red, patient loses his strength, complexion and capacity to perceive (Hatabalendriyabhaah), becomes wretched (Sudeena), has change in the colour of the face, which becomes dark brown (S`hyaavaanana).
If untreated, then the patient dies off this Vishaja उन्माद.
उन्माद though of 5 types, it can be grouped in to 2 types only.

  1. Nija (Endogenous Cause due to Dosha)
  2. Aagantu (Exogenous Cause due to the causes other than Dosha)

At times, due to the combination of etiological factors, they are manifested in a combined form. There is a combination of prodromal and actual symptoms.

Curability of उन्माद according to combination

Asaadhya Unmaada + Saadhya UnmaadaAsaadhya Unmaada
Asaadhya Unmaada + Asaadhya UnmaadaAsaadhya
Saadhya Unmaada + Saadhya UnmaadaSaadhya

Doshaja (Nija) Unmaada

First four types of उन्माद, which occur due to predominance of Dosha, are manifested in the following circumstances:
When a person is timid
When mind is afflicted by Rajas and Tamas
When the Dosha are aggravated and vitiated
When a person consumes unwholesome diet and unclean ingredients having mutually contradictory properties or touched by the unclean hands of persons suffering from the diseases like कुष्ठ etc.
When a person eats food violating all the dietetic rules (not obeying Aahaara Vidhi Vis`heshaayatanaani),
When a person does not behave according to the Sadvritta (behavioral regimen), and because of which his body gets excessively depleted
When a person is in diseased condition,
When his mind is afflicted
by Kaama (desire), Krodha (anger), Lobha (cupidity), Harsha (bristling), Bhaya (fear), Moha (infatuation), Aayaasa (exertion), S`hoka (sorrow), Chintaa (anxiety), Udvega (agitation),
When a person is subjected to excessive physical assault,
When his mind (Manas) gets seriously affected and his intellect (Buddhi) loses its balance,
In above conditions Dosha get aggravated and vitiated. They enter into the Hridaya and obstruct the channel of mind (Manovaha Srotas) resulting in उन्माद (insanity). Person having less Sattva (less tolerance to physical and mental stress), are more prone to Unmada.

Aagantu Unmaada (Bhootaja Unmaada)
The type of उन्माद, which has different Samutthaana (etiology), Poorvaroopa (Prodromal symptoms), Roopa (symptoms), Vedanaa (pain), and Upas` haya (pacifying factors) from उन्माद of Doshaja type, is called Aagantu Unmaada.
According to some scholars, causative factor of उन्माद is sinful acts in past life, which are caused due to Pradnyaaparaadha.
The causative factors of Aagantu Unmaada, initiate their action when: Due to Pradnyaaparaadha the person disregards Devarshi, Pitri, Gandharva, Yaksha, Raakshasa, Pis`haacha, Guru, Vriddha, Siddha Aachaarya, Poojya (honorable) personalities. When a person remains engaged in undesirable activities, उन्माद gets manifested due to his own sinful / inauspicious acts.

The causative factors of Aagantu उन्माद, initiate their action when:

  1. Gods see a person
  2. Guru (respectable person), Vriddha (elder person), Siddha (thoroughly skilled person), Maharshee (any great sage) by their curse
  3. Pitri when exhibit themselves
  4. Gandharva by their touch
  5. Yaksha by their seizure
  6. Raksha by making the patient to smell the odor of their body
  7. Pis`haachcha by riding their victims


  1. Dosha get aggravated due to the causative factors in a person with less mental strength (Heena Sattva) and get harbored into the heart (Hridaya).
  2. They contaminate the intellect (Dheeyah Kaalushyam).
  3. Obstructing the channel for mental traits (Manovaha Srotas) and cause उन्माद.

Qualities and powers of the gods etc. cause seizures of the individual without afflicting his physique. These supernatural beings are invisible and they afflict the human being instantaneously on the analogy of the reflection of ones picture in the mirror or sun rays in Sooryakaanta Man`i (Sun Stone), without significantly affecting (the body or the gem).

उन्माद due to Supernatural powers

Supernatural powers affect person of less mental strength (Heena Sattva) in following conditions:

  1. Beginning of sinful acts
  2. When the sinful acts of the past life get cumulate to produce their effects
  3. Residing in a home singly
  4. Wandering singly in a square (chatushpatha)
  5. Having sexual intercourse during the junctures of the day and night, during the new moon or fool moon day
  6. Sexual intercourse with a lady during her menses
  7. Recitation of scriptures, religious offerings, auspicious rites and sacrifices in improper manner
  8. Dishonoring a vow, discontinuing a religious duty or observance of celibacy
  9. Forceful battles
  10. Destruction of country, community and town
  11. Onset of inauspicious planet in the sky
  12. During the delivery process
  13. Coming in contact with different types of inauspicious and unclean creatures
  14. During वमन (emesis), Virechana (purgation) and bleeding
  15. Visiting a Chaitya (sacred tree) or temple when unclean and not following the prescribed rules
  16. Resorting to the remnants of meat, honey, sesame, jaggery, alcohol etc.
  17. While a person is naked
  18. Visiting cities, towns, cross roads, gardens, cremation grounds, slaughter houses at night
  19. Insulting Dvija (Brahmin), preceptors, the gods, ascetics and others who should be respected
  20. Misinterpreting other inauspicious activities

These are the circumstances in which a person is attached by exogenous type (Aagantu) of Umnaada.

Objectives of Supernatural powers (Bhoota) in उन्माद
उन्माद is caused by the agents with three objectives:

  1. Himsaa = to cause injury
  2. Rati = to have pleasure of love (Kreed`aa)
  3. Abhyarchana = to have reverence

When intention of an agent is to cause injury, a person enters into the fire, sinks into the water, falls into a pit, strikes himself with weapons, whips etc. He may also adopt such things to kill himself. This is incurable.

Unmaada caused for Ratih and Abhyarchanaa are curable.

Time of उन्माद by Bhoota

 Maadhva NidaanaCharaka Samhitaa
Deva GrahaPaurn`amaasaThe gods join ones self who is fond of purity, good conduct, penance and does the study of religious scriptures,generally on the first and thirteenth days of bright fort-night (S`hukla Paksha, S`hukla Pratipadaa or Trayodas`hee) at an opportune moment.
Rishi Rishi possess a person fond of bath, purity and lonely place and eager to read religious scriptures and Veda, generally on sixth and ninth day of the fort night (Shasht`hee and Navamee) at an opportune moment.
PitriAmaavaasyaaPitri possess a person devoted to service of his parents, GuruVriddhaSiddha and Aachaarya, generally on the tenth day of fortnight or on the new moon day (Das`hamee and Amaavaasyaa) at an opportune moment.
GandharvaAsht`ameeGandharva possess a person fond of hymns, songs and musical instruments, women of others, perfumes, garlands, purity and good conducts, generally on the twelfth or fourteenth day of a fortnight (Dvaadas`hee and Chaturdas`hee) at an opportune moment.
YakshaPratipadaaYaksha (attendant of Kubera) possess a person endowed with mental strength, physical strength, good complexion, ego and valor, having likings for garlands, laughter and who is talkative, generally during the seventh or eleventh day of the fortnight (S`hukla Ekaadas`hee and Saptamee) at an opportune moment.
Brahma Raakshasa Brahma Raakshasa possesses a Brahmin or a non Brahmin claiming to be a Brahmin who has affection to study the religious scriptures, penance, observance of scriptural rules, Upavaasa, Brahmacharya, respect for the Gods, Yati and Guru and purity, who claims to be brave and who likes a temple and aquatic games, generally on the fifth day of the bright fortnight or on the full moon day (S`hukla Panchamee Poorn`a Chandra Dars`hana)
Raakshasa & Pis`haachaRaatrau (Raakshasa)Chaturdas`hee (Pis`haacha)Raakshasa & Pis`haacha possess a person who is devoid of will power, who is a backbiter, who is fond of women, and who is greedy and a cheat, generally on the second, third or eight day of the fortnight (DveteeyaaTriteeyaaAsht`amee) at an opportune moment.

Vigata Unmaada Lakshan`a (Signs of regression of disease)

  1. Indriya Prasaada (Clarity in perception by sense organs)
  2. Buddhi Prasaada (Clarity in intellect)
  3. Aatma Prasaada (Clarity in spirit)
  4. Manah Prasaada (Clarity in mind)
  5. Prakritistha Dhaatu (Normal status of the Dhaatu)

These signs indicate that a person is free from उन्माद.

उन्माद types:Comparative study

रोगमार्गMadhyama (Marmagata Vikaara)     
Vyaadhi classificationMaanasa Vikaara     
SvabhaavaDaarun`a   AtighoraDaarun`a (Maaran`aatmaka) 
SaadhyaRatih UnmaadaAbhyarchanaa UnmaadaSaadhyaSaadhyaSaadhya  
AsaadhyaHimsaa Unmaada Hastau Udyamya Rosha Samrambhaat nihs`hankam anyeshu aatmani vaa nipaatayetSa as`hru Netra,Med`hrapravritta Rakta,Kshatajihva,Prasrutanaasikah,Chhidyamaana charmah,Apratihanyavaan`ih,Satata vikoojana,Durvarn`a,PootigandhahAvaanchee (Adhomukha) UdancheeKsheen`a MaamsaKsheen`a Bala Jagaruka    Asaadhya Samasta HetujaSarva Lakshan`a YuktaAsaadhya
Vyaadhi VyavachchhedaMadaatyaya     
DoshaUtsanna Dosha Udeern`a Dosha Prakupita Dosha Uddhata (Upachita) Dosha Uddhata (Vriddha) Dosha Vimaargaga DoshaPradusht`a Mala  Soshmaa Kapha (Sapitta Kapha)Samharshita Dosha (Spardhaavanta iva atis`hayena kupitaah) 
SrotasManovaha Srotas Aavaran`a Unmaarga Aas`hrita (Manovaha Srotas)Manovaha Maarga Hanana     
ManaUpaklisht`a Sattva Upahata Manas Mano Vibhrama Sattva Pariplava (Manasah Chanchalatvam) Mana Samudbhrama Chitta Pramoha (Mano Moha) Mano Bhraman`a Chitta Vibhrams`ha (Mano Vighaata Indu) Heena Sattva Madayanti (Mano Vibhramam Kurvanti)Rajastamobhyaam Aavrita Manas     
Dhee Dhriti SmritiPrachalita Buddhi Buddhi VibhramaSmriti VibhramaDhee Vibhrama (Bhraanta Dnyaana) Smriti Naas`ha Buddhi Naas`ha Buddhi Samudbhrama Smriti Samudbhrama Buddhi Upahanana Smriti upahanana Dhee Vibhrama Vidnyaana Vibhrama Smriti VibhramaDhee Kaalushya     
Effect on other factorsSandnyaa VibhramaBhakti VibhramaS`heela VibhramaChesht`aa Vibhrama Aachaara VibhramaSandnyaa Naas`ha     

Last updated on February 12th, 2021 at 11:32 am

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