विषय सूची पर जायें

कूपीपक्व रसायन कल्पना

Vaidya Badave Jyotee Haribhau

Rasas`haastra is the branch of Ayurveda which deals with the pharmaceutical and therapeutic scope of the medicinal products for:

  1. Their smaller dosage
  2. Quicker effectiveness
  3. Long durability

Thus Rasas`hastriya preparations play an important and vital role in curing the human beings. Various types of medicinal preparation are described in Rasas`haastra like BhasmaPisht`eeKhalvee-Rasaayana, Parpat`ee Kaplanaa, Kupeepakva Rasaayana is one of the more important among various drug preparations. A रसायन product prepared from Paarada and other ingredients in a specially designed Kupee (glass bottle) with the help of Vaalukaayantra by applying specific Kramaagni Taapa (MriduMadhyaTeevra Agni) is known as Kupeepakva Rasaayana. Though the preparatory method of this Kupeepakva Rasaayana is supposed to be much exhaustive and complicated, it has its own significance because of specific pharmaceutical process and excellent clinical results with minimum therapeutic dosage.

  • Types of Kupeepakva Rasaayana:
  1. According to contents:
    Sagandha e.g. Rasasindoora
    Nirgandha e.g. RasapushpaRasakarpoora
  2. According to Sthaana :
    Kan`t`hastha Rasasindoora
    Talastha Suvran`a Raajvangeshvara
    Ubhayastha Makardhvaja
  3. According to Heat :
  4. According to Contains:
    Sagandha: A preparation in which Gandhaka is used is called as Sagandha Kupeepakva Rasaayana e.g. Rasasindoora
    Nirgandha: A preparation in which Gandhaka is not used is called as Nirgandha Kupeepakva Rasaayana.
  5. According to Sthaana:
    Kan`t`hastha: A product which is obtained at the neck of the bottle is called as Kan`t`hastha Kupeepakva Rasaayana. It is also called as Sindoora Kalpanaa because of the color the final product acquires e.g. Rasasindoora
    Talastha: A final product which is obtained at the bottom of the bottle (Kupee) is called as Talastha Kupeepakva Rasaayana eg. Suvarn`araajavangeshvara
    Ubhayastha: Products which are obtained at neck and bottom also is called as Ubhayastha Kupeepakva Rasaayana e.g. Makaradhvaja

Detail Description of Examples of Kupeepakva Rasaayana:

SrName of the productIngredientsTypeAgni givenDiseaseDoseAnupaanaRef.
1RasasindooraS`hudha Paarada 2 partsS`hudha Gandhaka1/ 4 partsS`hudha Navsaagara 1 / 8 partBhaavanaa Jambira RasaKan`t`hastha24hrsAgnimaandya, Yaskshmaa, Paan`d`u, S`hotha, Udara, Jvara, ग्रहणीअर्शभगन्दर2/3 Gunjaa(240 360 mg)Pippalee, honey.[It has wide range spectrum with different Anupaana]Y.R.
2MallasindooraS`hudha Paarada 9 partsRasakarpoora 9 partsS`hudha Somala 4 partsS`hudha Gandhaka-5 ½ partsKan`t`hastha16 hrsAll Vaata Vyaadhi, Sannipaata disease  R.S.
3Suvarn`araajavangeshvaraS`hudha Paarada equal partsS`hudha Gandhaka equal PartsS`hudha Navsaagara equal PartsS`hudha Vanga equal partsTalastha12 hrsPrameha, KaantipradBalyaAgnivardhana  B.R.
4SameerpannagaS`hudha Paarada equal PartsS`hudha Gandhaka equal PartsS`hudha Harataal equal PartsS`hudha Manahs`hilaa equal PartsS`hudha Somala equal PartsTalastha24 hrsSaannipaatika Kaphonmaada, Kapha disorders120 mgBetel leaves juiceR.C.
5Poorn`a Chandrodaya (Makardhvaja)S`hudha Suvarn`a 4 partsS`hudha Parada 32 partsS`hudha Gandhaka 64 partsUbhayastha72 hrsVaajikara, Vishaghna120 mgGhrita Diet – Guru Snigdha 

Antardhooma Kupeepakva Rasaayana: In the preparation of Antardhooma Kupeepakva RasaayanaKramaagni should be given up to the mentioned duration, by corking of Kupee mouth initially before the starting of heating. In this preparation, there is no chance of performing completion test of Sindoora compound. It should be done very carefully as the Kupee can burst if Agni is not proper.

Bahirdhooma Kupeepakva Rasaayana: In this preparation, Kramaagni should be given up to the moderate temperature, then corking of the Kupee done.

The whole procedure can be divided under three headings:

  1. Purvakarma
  2. Pradhaanakarma
  3. Paschaatkarma

Above mentioned each and every measure taken during these three may ultimately affect the aimed goal i.e. success of the procedure.

  • Purvakarma:

During Purvakarma following points should be considered:

  1. Collection of appropriate equipments
  2. Purification of ingredients
  3. Preparation of Kajjalee
  4. Preparation of Kupee
  5. Filling of Kajjalee into the Kupee
  • Collection of appropriate equipments:
  1. Kaamcha Kupee( Beer bottle- Preferably green colored bottle)
  2. Vastra (Cotton cloth)
  3. Multaanee Mit`t`i (clay)
  4. Kupee stand
  5. Vaalukaa Yantra
  6. Vaalukaa
  7. Electric muffle furnace (instead of Vaaluka Yantra)
  8. Loha S`halaakaa (iron rods)
  9. Copper coins etc.
  • Purification of ingredients:

All the ingredients should be identified first for its authenticity and purity. Purified ingredients must be tested as per the Samyak Yukta Lakshan`a described in the texts.

  • Preparation of Kajjalee:

The preparation of the ingredients should be taken as per the reference and trituration should be done without using any liquid till the mixture becomes lusterless- in a sequence as described.(disappearance of Chandrikaa). The term Kajjalee can be used for pre material or for the mixture which is used for making Kupeepakva Rasaayana
Eg. Talasindoora Kajjalee, Rasapushpa Kajjalee etc.
Generally the Kajjalee has appearance of black colour but still the colour of this pre material depends on the ingredients used e.g.
HinguleeyaMaan`ikyarasa Kajjalee- Red colour
Rasapushpa Kajjlee – Ash colour
If Bhaavana is mentioned, it should be given after the completion of Kajjalee preparation.

  • Preparation of Kupee:

It has also very important role in the successful preparation of finished product.

  • Preparation:
  • Wrapping of beer bottle with mud smeared cloth
  • Application of layers in sequence after complete drying of former one
  • AIMS:
  • To enhance heat tolerance of Kupee
  • To control and regulate the heat to Kupee
  • To make the Kupee pressure resistant
  • Filling of Kajjalee in the Kupee:

The Kupee should be filled up to the 1/3 part by Kajjalee so that there should be enough space inside the Kupee for melting and boiling of Kajjalee and also for the sublimation of compound which is going to be condensed and deposited at the neck of the Kupee. Before starting the Pradhaanakarma some intermediary precautions should be taken such as:

Kupee should fix exactly at the center of Vaalukaayantra above and layer of two fingers height from the bottom of Vaalukaayantra.

  1. Mouth of the Kupee should be cleaned well and should be covered temporarily with the cork while pouring of sand into the Vaalukaayantra.
  2. It can be called as the heart of the complete procedure:

It includes:

  1. Heating pattern / schedule
  2. Temperature measurements

S`halaakaa Sanchalana- Observation of the neck and mouth of Kupee

  1. Observation of fumes and flames, smell.
  2. Corking mouth and self cooling
  • Heating pattern / schedule

It has to be considered under two headings:

  1. In terms of duration of heating
  2. In terms of temperature

The term duration indicates the time limit for maintenance of Kramaagni and in terms of temperature indicates the temperature limit for maintenance of Kramaagni.

This heating pattern may differ in both the terms as per the individual Kupeepakva preparation but still in general it can be said that Heating pattern of Kupeepakva Rasa

  1. Mild heat (Mridu Agni) 150 200oc
  2. Moderate Heat (Madhya Agni) 400 450oc
  3. High heat (Teevra Agni) 600 650c
  4. In the preparation of Rasasindoora heating duration is 10 hrs and the maximum temperature at the end of 9th hrs in round about 650c
  5. In the preparation of Hinguleeya Maan`ikyarasa of heating duration 72 hours the maximum temperature is 550 650c. while in case of Svarn`avanga preparation heating duration is 8 hours the maximum temperature is about 350oc
  6. And in the preparation of Rasapushpa (RPKD) heating duration is 71/2 hrs. While maximum temperature is about 425oc.
  • Temperature measurement:
    Temperature measurement works as indicator –
  1. Ancient parameters
    – cotton / dried husk test
    – rice test
  2. Modern parameters
    –  thermometers
    – pyrometers (digital)
  • S`halaakaa Sanchalana: (Application of iron rods)

During the procedure cold and hot iron rods are used. Cold rods (S`heeta S`halaakaa) is used especially for noting the state of Kajjalee, whether it is in powder form, melted form or in boiling stage or in sublimating compound state.

While hot rod is used for burning the extra sulphur deposited at the neck region of Kupee, which may block and ultimately breaks the Kupee.

  • Preservations of fumes and flames:

Fumes: All the characteristics of fumes like colour, odour etc must be noted. It differs according to the ingredients. Colour may be yellowish, Orange, bluish or white. Quantity may be mild, moderate or profuse. Odour like sulphur / aresenical odour may be some of the other observations. (Careful as they are toxic and can cause severe symtoms like headache, cough, nausea etc.)

Flame: It is also an important factor which preparing Kupeepakva Rasaayana. Timing of appearance of flame its colour and its duration are the important features. These features also depend on the ingredients used.

  • Corking of Kupee and self cooling:

To decide the proper time of corking is very important and difficult task as well. So before corking, few tests must be done are:

  1. Absence of flames
  2. Absence of fumes
  3. Copper coin test
  4. S`halaakaa test
  5. Appearance of redness in the bottom of Kupee
  6. Complete expulsion of water vapors.

Here points should be noted are first there is no appearance of flame in case of Nirgandha Kupeepakva Rasaayana like Rasapushpa and Rasa Karpoora second is color of sublimating compound layer; obtained on S`heeta S`halaakaa differs according to the individual Kupeepakva Rasaayana e.g. blackish colour in Rasasindoora, white colour in Rasapushpa. Yellowish orange in Hinguleeya Maan`ikyarasa. Before corking 2-3 inches of sand layer should move aside from the neck of Kupee then corking of mouth of the Kupee should be done with mud smeared cloth. Later on it should be left for self cooling. It is supposed that during this period, forming Sindoora (sublimating compound starts to condense in the neck portion of Kupee and whatever the temperature obtaining in this period is necessary for enhancement of quantity and qualities of the Kupeepakva compound by its complete Paaka process.

a.   Pas`chaat Karma :

Following measures comes under this:

  1. Removal of Kupee
  2. Breaking of Kupee
  3. Collection of product
  4. Examination of product
  1. Removal of Kupee: first sand should be removed from Vaalukaayantra and then, carefully the Kupee. Because sometimes it may be possible that Kupee is broken inside but may remain intact due to the layers of Kaapad`amit`t`i. So that the drug will not be wasted. By scrapping remove the layers of Kaapad`amit`t`i and Kupee should be cleaned with wet cloth, then mark the level of रसायन inside the neck or bottom
  2. Breaking of Kupee: A thread soaked in spirit should be tied around the middle of Kupee just below the level up to the adhered compound and they should be set on fire. The Kupee should be set on fire. The Kupee should be kept horizontal and rotated so that, whole thread set on fire and when it burns up completely, water should be sprinkled so that it cracks gently . Thus the Kupee will break from the middle at desired level and then रसायन is of Kan`t`hastha or Talastha type should be collected.
  3. Collection of product: रसायन product which may be Kan`t`hastha or Talastha type should be collected carefully from the particular portion of Kupee such as from neck Rasasindoora.

    Makaradhvaja from middle Mallasindoora from bottomSvarn`avangaMakaradhavajaSamirapannaga Talastha Rasasindoora.
    In case of preparation on Nirgandha
    Kupeepakwa Rasayana heating pattern should be Kramaagni as Kajjalee and stage of flaming. In such situation corking should be done after the complete expulsion of watery vapors from Kupee and positive S`halaakaa test. Rests of the things are resembled.

    Medico-ethically examination of analysis of the ultimate result i.e. रसायन product is very essential before it is used in therapeutics.
  4. Examination of product : Examination of analytical study of finished product should be done by
  • Physical examination study

–  Naked eye examination
–  Crystalline nature
–  Colour
–  Shining
–  Quantity obtained
–  Weight of the product.

  • Spectral study may be applied

X-Ray diffraction are also may be useful for the purpose

  • Chemical study


Vaidya Badave Jyotee Haribhau

Last updated on February 26th, 2021 at 07:56 am

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