Mythological Origin of राजयक्ष्मा (C.Chi.8/3-12)
The story narrated by the gods to the sages regarding the origin of राजयक्ष्मा relates to the habitual sex indulgence of Chandra.
The Moon was exceedingly attached to Rohin`ee did not care for his health.
He became emaciated due to depletion of Sneha (Unctuousness)
Therefore, moon was not able to satisfy the sexual urge of the rest of the daughters of the Prajaapati.
Due to which Prajaapatis anger came out of his mouth in the form of breath and took a physical form.
The moon had earlier been married with the twenty eight daughters of Prajaapati. But he was unable to satisfy them all.
Therefore the moon afflicted by राजयक्ष्मा as a result of Prajaapatis expression of anger.
Discriminatory treatment of moon with his wives resulted in to राजयक्ष्मा to weakened moon.
Moon lost his complexion due to the anger of Prajaapati and preponderance of Rajas.
Accompanied by the gods and godly sages, he sought the shelter of Prajaapati.
Being satisfied by the good intentions of moon, Prajaapati was pleased.
The moon then treated by the As`hvinikumaara.
The treatment increased his Oja and he got pure mind. (S`huddha Sattva)
The राजयक्ष्मा being expelled out by the As`hvini Kumaara from the heaven, came down to the world of human beings. Thus, this disease afflicts human being which is caused by four reasons.
This story reveals that this is a Karmadoshaja Disease. S.U.41/4, 5 D`alhan`a
- शोष it desiccates the Rasa etc. Dhaatu. S.U.41/4; A.H.Ni.5/1; A.H.Ni.5/3; Ch. Ni. 6
- Rasaadayah Dhaatvah S`hushyati Anena Iti S`hoshah | A.H.Ni.5/3 Hemaadri
- S`hleshma Roga C.Ni.6/13 Chakrapaan`i
- Rogaraaja C.Chi.8/188
- Rogaraad Raajavat Rogeshu Raajata Iti Rogaraat A.H.Ni.5/1 Hemaadri
- Kshaya it lowers down the physical, vocal and mental activities S.U.41/4; A.H.Ni.5/1;
It depletes body also the medicines (medicines do not able to cure it) A.H.Ni.5/3
- Deham Aushadham Kshin`oti Iti Kshayah | A.H.Ni.5/3 Hemaadri
- S`hukraadi Kshayaad Sambhavati Ti Kshayah | A.H.Ni.5/3 Hemaadri
- राजयक्ष्मा as this disease afflicted the king moon, so it is called as राजयक्ष्मा. S.U.41/5; A.H.Ni.5/1
- Raajaa Iva Yakshmaa Raajayakshmaa Iti | C.Ni.6/12
akshmaa is the king of all diseases.
- Rajdnyo Yakshmaa Raajayakshmaa | C.Ni.6/12; A.H.Ni.5/2, 3
- Yasmaad Vaa Poorvam Aaseet Bhagavatah Somasya Ud`uraajasya Tasmaad Raajayakshmaa Iti | C.Ni.6/12
The king of Nakshatraa I. e. moon (Soma / Chandra) was suffered from this disease so it was called as राजयक्ष्मा.
- Sarvarogaan`aam Kasht`atamatvaad Raajayakshmaan`am Aachakshate | C.Ni.6/12
It is the most Untolerable disease and patient suffers the most in this, so it is called as राजयक्ष्मा.
- Yasmaat Sa Radnyah Praag Aaseet Raajayakshmaa Tato Matah | C.Chi.8/3-11
In previous time, it inflicted misery upon Raajan (King of Stars Moon), so it is called as राजयक्ष्मा.
- Yat cha Raajaa cha Yakshmaa cha Raajayakshmaa Tato Matah | A.H.Ni.5/2, 3
- This is a disease in which a person gets depleted. The Dhaatu are emaciated. The quantities of waste products get increased. The person retains his life on the fecal matter itself. So it has been advised that excreta is to be retained of an emaciated person, otherwise there is a threat of death of this emaciated person.
- This disease manifests with Pratis`hyaaya, Kshavathu (excessive sneezing), S`hleshma Praseka. It manifests with Kapha predominant symptoms. Though, Vaayu is the Major factor in Raajayakshmaa, in Poorvaroopa state, Kapha predominant symptoms are seen. This Kapha gets aggravated as the chest (Uras) is the main area where Dosha get vitiated mainly. So, Kapha at chest region gets aggravated and manifests a disease with Kapha predominant picture. Therefore, this disease is also called as S`hleshma Roga.
- It means that it is actually a combination of different diseases (Vyaadhi Samooha) C.Chi.8/32; C.Chi.8/44
- कास (Cough) is the main symptom which occurs in all the types of the राजयक्ष्मा. It may be the combination of 3 or 6 or 11 symptoms.
- It manifests with कास (Cough) with 11 symptoms:
- PaarS`hva Rujaa
- S`horo Rujaa
- Rakta Chhardana
- Kapha Chhardana
- Varcho Gada
- It may manifest with कास with 6 symptoms:
- It may manifest with कास with 3 symptoms: C.Chi.8/41-43; M.NI.10/5
- Bhoja has given 3 symptoms: M.NI.10/ 5 MadhukoS`ha
- It may manifest with कास with any of the 3 symptoms out of eleven Lakshaan`aas. C.Chi.8/41-43
- राजयक्ष्मा is a disease having S.U.41/3
- Aneka Rogaanugato with many complications like श्वास, कास, etc. A.H.Ni.5/1
- Bahuroga Purogamah many diseases manifest as Prodromal signs. A.H.Ni.5/1
- Durvidnyeya it is very difficult to assess a disease as per the quality and quantity of vitiation of Dosha (AmS`hamS`ha Kalpanaa)
- Durnivaara it is very difficult to cure, it is Krichhhrasaadhya
- Mahaabala the strength of disease itself is more as it dominates over the strength of a patient.
- This disease is Tridoshaja like कुष्ठ so described after कुष्ठ in Charaka Samhitaa. C.Chi.8/2 Chakrapaan`I
- Tridosho Jaayate Yakshmaa | M.NI.10/1
- Though, due to Vega Dhaaran`a, Vaayu gets aggravated; it is not described as Vaataja but it is TriDoshatmaka. The reason is that due to Vaata Prakopa, digestive capacity gets hampered (Agni Maandya) which lead to Kapha and Pitta Prakopa. M.NI.10/1 T`eekaa
- Sus`hruta has quoted an opinion that the disease is of 3 types according to Dosha. But this opinion is further ruled out by Su`S`hruta himself saying that as राजयक्ष्मा has one basic cause like anger of Prajaapati, all the eleven symptoms are present therein as they are caused by all the three Dosha and due to Tantrayukti (textual device) it has same treatment.
- So it can be concluded that it is a Saannipaatika (by combination of all the Dosha) disease. Only the thing is that Dosha are observed with the predominance of the symptoms. S.U.41/6-8; M.NI.10/1
- Obstruction of Rasa etc. channels is the most important factor with the depletion of Dhaatu. It is necessary that there should be obstruction of the channels (Srotorodha). If there is no obstruction of channels then there will be only depletion of Dhaatu as a disease. In this situation, Dhaatu Kshaya itself will be a disease and not Yakshmaa. M.NI.10/2 T`eekaa
- राजयक्ष्मा is caused due to four reasons and it is classified according to that. C.Ni.6/3; Su. U.41.8, 9
- Saahasaja Raajayakshmaa / Aaghaataja (due to over exercise and doing the acts beyond the capacity)
- (Vega) Sandhaaran`aja Raajayakshmaa (due to suppression of natural urges) Vaata, Mootra and Pureesha Vegaa only. Ch. Chi. 8; M. N. 10 T`eekaa
- Kshayaja Raajayakshmaa (due to emaciation of Dhaatu)
- VishamaaS`hanaja Raajayakshmaa (due to consumption of unwholesome diet)
- These are the four etiological factors. For each etiological factor the pathogenesis happens in the body is different, so the disease राजयक्ष्मा is described and classified through these four etiological factors.
- When a weak person fights with a stronger one, exerts with too big bow (Dhanush), speaks to much, carries too big load, swims for a long distance, resorts to forceful massage and application of pressure by feet or runs fast to cover a long distance, subjects himself to assault, indulges himself in irregular exercises or in excessive exercises, his chest gets injured due to such exercises. (Urah Kshan`Yate)
- The injured place gets vitiated by Vaayu.
- This Vaayu afflicts Kapha which resides in the chest.
- It moves upward, downward and sideways, vitiating Pitta also.
- The portion of Vaayu, which affects the joints of the body causes yawing (Jrimbhaa), malaise (Angamarda) and fever (ज्वर)
- The portion of Vaayu, which affects the AamaaS`haya, causes the diseases of chest (Urasya Vikaara) like Hrid Drava (palpitation), Hrid S`hoola (Cardiac pain) [Hrid Drava S`holaadayah Chakrapaan`I C.Ni.6/4] and anorexia (अरोचक)
- The portion of Vaayu, which affects the throat (Kan`t`ha) causes Kan`t`hoddhvansa (irritation of the throat) and Svara Avasaada.
- The portion of Vaayu, which affects the Praan`avaha Srotas, causes श्वास (Dyspnoea) and Pratis`hyaaya.
- The portion of Vaayu, which affects the head (S`hiras), causes the damage to head.
- Due to irregular movements of Vaayu, injury in the chest, irritation of the throat, a patient suffers from constant cough (Kaasa Satatam )
- Due to this cough, there is further injury to the chest and the patient spits the blood.
- Due to blood spitting, patient suffers from weakness.
- Thus, a patient suffers from the complications due to over exercise and doing the acts beyond the capacity.
- In this way Dhaatu start depleting which lead to further emaciation slowly.
- This is शोष (राजयक्ष्मा)
Vega Sandhaaran`aja Raajayakshmaa
- When an individual suppress the natural urges for passing flatus (Vaata), urine (Mootra) and stool (Pureesha) because of apprehension, pre-occupation, bashfulness or in front of king or while sitting at the feet of preceptor or while gambling or attending meetings of gentlemen, or in the midst of women or while traveling, the Vaayu gets aggravate.
- This Vaayu provoke Pitta and Kapha and along with them it moves upwards, downwards and sideways.
- Different parts of the Vaayu enter in to the different parts of the body causing pain (S`hoola)
- It causes diarrhea (Pureesha Bheda) or it dries up the Pureesha.
- It causes excessive pain in the sides of the chest (PaarS`hva Rujaa)
- It causes grinding pain in the Amsa (Shoulder region)
- It increases the respiratory movements of throat (Kan`t`ha) and chest (Uras)
- It damages head.
- It causes cough (कास), Dyspnoea (श्वास), fever (ज्वर), hoarseness of voice (स्वरभेद), Coryza (Pratis`hyaaya)
- Thus, these complications cause depletion of Dhaatu and causes emaciation slowly.
- This is Raajayakshmaa.
- When a person is in excessive grief, worries, jealousy, anxiety, fear, anger, when a person indulges in Ununctuous diet and drinks, when a weak person indulges in lesser quantity food or in fasting; then Rasa Dhaatu residing at heart gets diminished.Due to this diminished Rasa, a person gets emaciated.
If it remains Untrated, it may turn to राजयक्ष्मा.Due to excessive passion in the sexual act, semen gets diminished due to over indulgence.
- If a mind does not get detached from woman even after diminution of semen and is still indulges in sexual act, he dies not have ejaculation of semen as already semen is diminished.
- During this, Vaayu enters in to the blood vessels of this individual leading to the ejaculation of blood through the channel for semen. It causes the symptoms of vitiated Vaata.
- Due to diminution of semen and discharge of blood, the joints become loose, Vaayu gets aggravated.
- This aggravated Vaayu, traverse thorough the empty body causing aggravation in Kapha and Pitta.
- These dry up the muscle Tisues (Maamsa) and blood (Rakta).
- It causes pain the side of the chest, grinding pain in the Amsa (shoulder), irritation in the throat, head becomes full of Kapha, vitiating Kapha; It produces malaise, anorexia, and indigestion after afflicting the joints.
- Due to vitiation of Pitta and Kapha and unwanted movements of Vaayu; fever, cough, Dyspnoea, hoarseness of voice, Coryza are manifested.
- When a patient coughs, as the chest is injured, the blood is spitted out.
- Due to this blood discharge, person feels weakness.
- Thereafter, due to depletion of Dhaatu, a person gets emaciated slowly.
- When a person indulges in diet without paying proper attention to Asht`au Aahaara Vidhi ViS`hesha Aayatana (Nature, Mode of Preparation, Combination, Quantity, Locality, Time, Diatetic rules and wholesomeness for the individual of diet), all the three Doshas get vitiated. (Vaishamya)
- These vitiated Dosha spread all over the body and obstruct the openings of the channels.
- In this condition, the food eaten by the individual is mostly converted to the stool and urine rather than Dhaatu.
- The afflicted person is sustained by the retention of the stool.
- Therefore, the fecal matter of individual suffering from emaciation should be retained.
- Dosha accumulated due to irregular diet, individually produce the complications in the body which is already emaciated which result in further emaciation.
- The blood spitted cough is produced. Due to this discharge of blood, a person gets weakness.
- This is राजयक्ष्मा. (Anuloma Kshaya)
- In राजयक्ष्मा though all three Dosha are responsible, they produce their symptoms having dominance of Kapha. The channels of Dhaatu get obstructed by Kapha. S.U.41/9
- As the channel of Rasa Dhaatu is obstructed, the nutrient Aahaara Rasa can not get in to the next channel of Rakta. So Rakta Dhaatu remains unnourished. The same thing happens with the successive Dhaatu. Therefore, the Dhaatu remain unnourished and get depleted. This condition manifests on a person as emaciation (Kshaya / शोष). This is राजयक्ष्मा. (Anuloma Kshaya)
- This emaciation occur other way also.
When a person engaged in sexual act excessively, semen gets diminished. If a person goes on with sexual act with already depleted semen, all other Dhaatu also get depleted. D`alhan`a says that when a pond dries up the aquatic animals do not enter in it, in the same way when S`hukra Dhaatu dries up all the previous Dhaatu too desiccate. (Pratiloma Kshaya)
- In MadhukoS`ha it is explained that due to depletion of S`hukra, Vaayu gets aggravated. This Vaayu desiccates nearest Dhaatu, Majjaa and this process of depletion of proximal Dhaatu goes on. Thus, Dhaatu get depleted in antecedent direction. This is Pratiloma Kshaya.
- Due to four causative factors of Raajayakshmaa Vaayu gets aggravated.
It provokes Kapha and Pitta all over the body.
This aggravated Vaayu enters into joints of body (S`hareera Sandhi) and Siraa. They obstruct or widen the openings of the channels and spread upward, downward or sideway in the body creating respective diseases.
Why Dhaatu get depleted in राजयक्ष्मा? (A. H. Ni.5.19-22)
- In राजयक्ष्मा, Kapha dominant Dosha obstruct the openings of the channels, therefore Dhaatvaagni get diminished.
- Rasa at its own site which is partly ripened and partly undigested (Vidaaha of Rasa Madhyamaa Paakaavasthaa – Hemaadri) cause the complications (Upadrava).
- It does not travel to the channel of next Dhaatu.
- This Vidaahee Rasa itself turns in to next Dhaatu I. e. Rakta.
- This Rakta goes upward and comes out as spitting with blood.
- The food gets digested in to the Kosht`ha turns in to fecal matter and it does not nourish the Dhaatu.
- As Rasa is not converted in to Rakta, likewise all other successive Dhaatu are also not nourished.
- Therefore, a person retains his life only because of fecal matter (Mala)
राजयक्ष्मा: Lakshn`a – 1
|Pratis`hyaaya #||Pratis`hyaaya #||Pratis`hyaaya #|
|Chaardi (Muhuh) *||Chaardi|
|Rudhira Chhardana *|
# absence of Pratis`hyaaya = in Saahasaja Raajayakshmaa
* combination of 3 Lakshan`aa as Triroopa Raajayakshmaa and specific different Lakshan`aas then other types.
राजयक्ष्मा: Lakshan`a – 2
|Lakshan`a||Casusative Dosha||Lakshan`a||Casusative Dosha|
राजयक्ष्मा: Lakshn`a – 3
|ViD` BhramS`ha||Either ViD` BhramS`ha or Vid SamS`hosha|
Lakshan`a and Dominanaceof Dosha
|S`hirah S`hoola||Paada Daaha||अरोचक|
|PaarS`hva S`hoola||Amsa Daaha||Chaardi|
|Amsa Mardana||Paan`I Daaha||कास|
|Anga Mardana||अतिसार||Moordhaa Gaurava|
|Kan`t`hoddhvamsa||Asrik Chaardi||Anga Gaurava|
|Svara BhramS`ha||Mukha Gandha||Praseka|
Upadrava of राजयक्ष्मा
- Uro Ruk
- Pooti Aasya
In a person whose head is full of Vitiated Vaayu, the Kapha, Rakta and Pitta situated in the root of nasal passage (Ghraan`a Moola) moves towards the Vaayu as a result of which Pratis`hyaaya occurs, which is serious (Ghora) in nature. It causes emaciation of the body. C.Chi.8/48-50
A patient spits out Rasa mixed with Kapha, while coughing which is slimy (Pichchhila), thick (Bahala), putrid (Visra), green, white or yellow in Colour. C.Chi.8/51
Burning sensation in the shoulders and sides of the chest, burning sensation in the hands and feet and fever; these are the characteristic features of राजयक्ष्मा. C.Chi.8/52
स्वरभेद is caused due to Vaayu, Pitta, Kapha, कास, Peenasa.
If manifests according to the causative factor. C.Chi.8/53-55
Paars`hvas`hoola and S`hirahs`hoola
In राजयक्ष्मा, pain in the sides of the chest is indeterminate. It sometimes related with contraction sometimes related with expansion of the chest.
In राजयक्ष्मा, headache is associated with burning sensation and with heaviness. Ch. Chi.8.56
In राजयक्ष्मा, when a person is emaciated, the accumulated and excited blood and Kapha comes out from the throat. Ch. Chi.8.57}
Because of the obstruction in the channels of blood, it does not get converted into Maamsa. Thus, it gets accumulated in the AamaaS`haya and then excited, comes out through the throat.
श्वास and Ateesaara (Varchobheda)
As the chest gets congested with Vaayu and Kapha, a person suffers from Dyspnoea.
This patient passes the quantity of stool along with the mucus (Pichchha) because of the suppression of Agni by vitiated Dosha. C.Chi.8/59
When the Dosha are situated at tongue and heart, they cause Aruchi (aversion for food or anorexia).
It may be due to individual Dosha or due to all the Dosha. It may also be due to aversion for the object of gustatory sensation.
The taste of the mouth becomes Kashaaya, Tikta, Madhura due to Vaata, Pitta and Kapha respectively. C.Chi.8/60-61
Vomitting is caused by अरोचक, कास, excited Dosha and fear (Bhaya)
This vomiting might also occur as a complication in other diseases. C.Chi.8/62
Types of शोष S.U.41/16; M.N. 10.14-20
- Vyavaaya S`hosha
- S`hoka S`hosha
- Sthaavirya S`hosha / Jaraa S`hosha
- Vyaayaama S`hosha
- Adhva S`hosha
- Upavaasa S`hosha
- Vran`a शोष
- Urah Kshata S`hosha
It manifests with the same symptoms as of S`hukra Kshaya like penile and scrotal pain. Antecedent Dhaatu get depleted also. Patient becomes pale / yellowish white.
A person Sinked with thinking more and more gets depleted. But here no symptoms of depletion of semen are present; all other symptoms of Vyavaaya S`hosha are present.
In old age a person gets emaciated. The strength, intellect, perceptive capacity all gets reduced. There is tremor, anorexia, voice like sound of broken bronze vessel (Bhinna Kaamsya Paatrahata Svarah). A person spits without Kapha. He suffers from heaviness, excessive discharge from mouth, nose and eyes while feces are dry. The complexion gets dulled.
Due to excessive walking a person sinks, body parts become inactive, Kloma and Gala (throat) become dry.
A person due to excessive physical exertion gets the symptoms same as of Adhva S`hosha. It also resembles to Urah Kshata but without wound in the chest.
Due to depletion of Rakta, pain and restrictions in diet, Vran`a शोष occurs. This is incurable.
If a chest is injured due to excessive physical exercise, weight lifting, reading, trauma sexual activity, because of the wound in chest Kapha, Pus and blood comes out. While coughing yellow, red, black or reddish sputum expelled out. Due to the injury in the chest, he gets agonizing pain and then faints. Mouth and respiration have foul smell. The complexion and voice get spoiled.
राजयक्ष्मा: Comparative Study
|Avayava||AamaaS`hayaKan`t`haPraan`avaha SrotasS`hareera SandhiS`hirasUras||AamaaS`hayaAmsaKan`t`haPaarS`hvaPraan`avaha SrotasS`hareera SandhiS`hirasUras(Poorvavat S`hareera Avayava ViS`hesham Cha. Ni. 6.6)||AmsaHridayaKan`ThaPaarS`hvaS`hirasSandhiUras||AmsaKan`ThaPaarS`hvaUras|
|Saadhya||Ajaata Arisht`aApariksheen`a BalaApariksheen`a MaamsaApariksheen`a S`hon`ItaAushadha Bala SahatvaBalavaan Rugn`aUpachita Rugn`aVyaadhi Bala Sahatva|
|Asaadhya||अग्निमांद्य S.U.41/14,15 D`alhan`aAnna DvesheeAteesaara NipeeD`Ta Rugn`aAtiksheen`a Maamsa,Atiksheen`a S`hon`ItaAtiksheen`a Bala,Aushadha Bala AsahaBahu LingaDurbala Rugn`aJaata Arisht`aKrichhra Bahu MeheeKsheen`a Rugn`aKsheeyamaan`a Rugn`aMahaaS`hana Rugn`aOordhva S`hvaaseeS`hona UdaraS`hoona MushkaS`hukla AkshaSarva Roopa (Lakshan`a) YuktaVyaadhi Bala Asaha|
|Dosha||VaayuVaayu UpaplavanaPittaPitta Dusht`IKaphaKapha Upasamgrihya(Kaphapradhaana Dosha S.U.41/9)(Vaata Prakopa A.H.Ni.5/5)(Pitta and Kapha Udeeran`a A.H.Ni.5/5)||VaayuVaata PrakopaPittaPitta Udeeran`aKaphaKapha Udeeran`a(Kaphapradhaana Dosha S.U.41/9)(Vaata Prakopa A.H.Ni.5/5)(Pitta and Kapha Udeeran`a A.H.Ni.5/5)||VaataVaata PrakopaVaata – PratilomatvaPittaPitta PrakopaKaphaKapha Prakopa(Kaphapradhaana Dosha S.U.41/9)(Vaata Prakopa A.H.Ni.5/5)(Pitta and Kapha Udeeran`a A.H.Ni.5/5)||VaataVaata – VaishamyaPittaPitta VaishamyaKaphaKapha Vaishamya(Kaphapradhaana Dosha S.U.41/9)(Vaata Prakopa A.H.Ni.5/5)(Pitta and Kapha Udeeran`a A.H.Ni.5/5)|
|Dosha_Gun`a||Vaata = Chala||Vaata = Chala|
|Dhaatu||RaktaRakta Nisht`hivana(Sarva Dhaatu Kshaya S.U.41/8 D`alhan`a)||(Sarva Dhaatu Kshaya S.U.41/8 D`alhan`a)||RasaRasa – KshayaS`hukraS`hukra KshayaRaktaRakta S`hukramaargen`a PravaratanRakta Nisht`heevanaMaamsaMaamsa S`hoshaS`hon`ItaS`hon`Ita S`hosha(Sarva Dhaatu Kshaya S.U.41/8 D`alhan`a)||RaktaRakta Nisht`heevanaRasaRasa Kshaya(Sarva Dhaatu Kshaya S.U.41/8 D`alhan`a)Rasa Vidaaha|
|Srotas||Praan`avahaRaktavaha(Sarvasrotorodha S.U.41/9)||AnnavahaPureeshavaha(Sarvasrotorodha S.U.41/9)||RasavahaRaktavahaMaamsavahaS`hukravaha(Sarvasrotorodha S.U.41/9)||(Sarvasrotorodha S.U.41/9)|
|Sarva Srotas Rodha,All 13 Srotas Rodha or Vivaran`a A.H.Ni.5/6 Hemaadri|
|Agni||Agni Apachaya (Maandya) = Agni Maandya, Bhootaagni Maandya and Dhaatvagni MaandyaAgni Apachaya (Maandya) of all the 13 types C.Chi.8/40, T`eekaa|
Last updated on February 12th, 2021 at 04:40 am