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अग्नि की अवधारणा

Agni is the inherent factor which is responsible for the constant process of change either for yielding energy (catabolic) or to synthesize the tissue (anabolic). Agni maintains ones integrity and vitality by converting the food consumed in various forms, into various structural and functional components and also provides the energy (Urjah), necessary for proceeding with bodys innumerable vital activities.

Agni is defined as Nayate Parin`aamayateeti

That is the one which brings about the transformation of consumed Aahaara Vihaaraadi Dravya of Vijaateeya (incompatible) origin to Sajaateeya (homogeneous) nature.

Agni Gun`ajanakamevacha Na Dravyajanakam| Chakrapaan`ee

Agni brings about a change of qualities i.e. Gurvaadi Gun`a, but never produces a new substance or Dravya. So it is the factor responsible for bringing about the breakdown and synthesis of substance.

All changes occurring at macroscopic, inorganic, organic levels are due to Paakakarma of Agni.

The metabolism occurs at three levels. First is the basic metabolism occurring inside the gastrointestinal tract for which Jaat`haraagni is responsible.

Then the one occurring at more subtlelevel that is at the elemental level by Bhautikaagni.

Last is the digestion occurring inside the Srotas i.e. at the cellular level, responsible for the production of Dhaatu the body constituents by Dhaatvagni.

The life of a human being is dependant upon the strength of the Agni. Agni is a prime over and also the ultimate factor in the process of sustenance of life.


The strength of Agni is responsible for yielding energy for Bala, Vyaayaamas`hakti (physical strength), Vyaadhinirodhaka S`hakti (immunity) and Utsaahotsaahaadi Karma.

Following things are dependant on the strength of Agni

  • Varn`a (Complexion)
  • Bala (Physical Strength)
  • Svaasthya (Health)
  • Utsaaha (Vitality)
  • Upachaya (Growth)
  • Prabhaa (Glow)
  • Oja (Vigor)
  • Teja (Radiance)

Agni is one of the ten factors which are required to be examined before initiating the treatment of the patient. So Agnipareekshaa is included under Das`havidha Rugn`a Pareekshaa. It is stated that all the internal diseases are caused by vitiation of Agni. This is a pivot round which the remaining factors for the maintenance of health and causation of diseases as well as decay revolve.

There are three types of Agni Jaat`haraagni, Dhaatvagni and Bhootaagni.

  • Jaat`haraagni Grahan`ee is the site of Agni. This is mainly responsible for the digestion of the ingested food. This is mainly responsible for the transformation of all types of ingested food, Saara Kit`t`avibhajana and production of Dosha, Rasa, Mootra and Pureesha. The other types of Agni further act on the Saarabhaaga thus produced by action of Jaat`haraagni. So unless the Saarabhaaga is qualitative, it will not be suitable for further process of Bhootaagni and Dhaatvagni, whereby their functions will be disturbed. Hence the Jaat`haraagni is main factor responsible for better functions of other types of Agni.
  • Bhootaagni The function of Bhootaagni starts immediately after absorption Aahaara Rasa produced after action of Jaat`haraagni. Its action ends, before assimilation by delivering Asthaayi Dhaatvaams`ha into the circulation through hepatic vein. So Yakrit (Liver) can be considered as the site of Bhootaagni. There are 5 Bhootaagni. Namely Paarthivaagni, Aapyaagni, Tejaagni, Vaayavaagni, Aakaashaagni. These are responsible for the metabolism of the respective part of the particular Panchamahaabhoota from the Aahaararasa.
  • Dhaatvagni These are seven in number. Viz. Rasa Dhaatvagni, Rakta Dhaatvagni, Maamsa Dhaatvagni, Meda Dhaatvagni, Asthi Dhaatvagni, Majjaa Dhaatvagni, S`hukra Dhaatvagni. Each one is located in its specific Dhaatu. After the action of Dhaatvagni the main Dhaatu, Upadhaatu are produced and the Mala like Kapha, Pitta, Sveda are also produced.

अगिन्रेव शरीरे पित्तान्तर्गतः कुपिताकुपितः शुभाशुभानि करोति C.Su.12/11

In body this Agni functions through the media of Pitta.

Any type of malfunction of Agni i.e. Manda / Vishama / Teekshn`a leads to formation of Aama (undigested food / chyme) in the body. The partially digested food remaining in the gastro intestinal tract due to weaker digestive power is called Aama .This Aama is considered as the root cause of many diseases. To avoid this one should always try to preserve the strength of Agni.

शान्तेऽगनै म्रियते, युक्ते चिरं जीवत्यनामय: ।

रोगी स्याद्विकृते, मूलमगिन्स्तस्मान्निरुच्यते ॥  C.Chi.15/4

So quality and life span of an individual depends upon the strength of Agni. Utsanna / S`haanta (abolished) Agni results in death, Samaagni leads to longer and healthy life span and Vikritaagni (Manda / Vishama / Teekshn`a) leads to disease.

Last updated on May 18th, 2021 at 09:59 am

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