विषय सूची पर जायें


Chi. 17, S. U. 51, A.H. Ni. 4., M. Ni. 12.

Nirukti :

  • Vihaaya Prakritim Vaayuh Praan`o atha Kapha Samyutah |
    S`Hvaasayati Oordhvago Bhootvaa Tam S`Hvaasam Parichakshate ||

S. U. 51.4

  • S`hvaasah Tu Bhastrikaadhmaanasama Vaata Oordhvagaamitaa |

M. Ni. 12.15 Madhukos`ha

  • श्वास is a state in which a person breaths rapidly like a leather bag which inflates and deflates with speed. In S`hvaasa Vaata turns to the upward direction.

Svaroopa :

  • श्वास is a serious disease.
  • श्वास by name means difficulty to respire. Though the word श्वास means the inspiration and expiration but this word denotes the diseased condition where a person feels difficulty to respire.
  • Here, the respiration may speed up, slow down, difficult breathing, shallow breathing etc.
  • So many diseases are responsible for death. Amongst them, श्वास and हिक्का are the two, because of which a man leads to death very quickly.
  • One of these two diseases is present at the time of death surely. A person experiences great pain inconvenience at the time of death.
  • The disease is manifested with the dominance of Kapha and Vaata. The pathogenesis of the disease starts from the Pitta Sthaana i. e. Aamaas`haya (Chakrapaan`i T`eekaa)
  • The pathogenesis of the श्वास and हिक्का are same; but they are very difficult to cure (Parama Durjaya) If they are treated wrongly, a person leads to death.

Sampraapti :


  • Vaata gets aggravated in the Praan`avaha Srotas.
  • This aggravated Vaata vitiated Kapha (Prakopa); collectively both they produce हिक्का and श्वास causing obstruction in the Praan`avaha and Udakavaha Srotas.


  • Vaata gets obstructed due to Kapha.
  • This Vaata harbours all the body.
  • Praan`avahaAnnavaha and Udakavaha Srotasaa_s get vitiated due to this Vaata.
  • Vaata causes श्वास residing in the Uras (Chest) pathogenesis of which starts from the Pittasthaana i.e. Aamaas`haya.


  • Vaata with Kapha obstruct the channels for Praan`a Vaayu Udaka (body fluid), Anna (food). The Vaata moves with the unnatural directions (Vimaaraga Gati) producing श्वास.


  • Praan`a Vaayu devoid of its attributes gets associated with Kapha. It moves in the upward direction causing श्वास.


  1. Mahaa S`hvaasa
  2. Oordhva S`hvaasa
  3. Chhinna S`hvaasa
  4. Tamaka S`hvaasa
    a. ratamaka
    b. Santamaka
  5. Kshudra S`hvaasa

Kshudra S`hvaasa:
A person who exerts a bit suffers from the श्वास and after the rest in sitting position श्वास subsides. This type of श्वास is not serious as other types of श्वास are.
According to Maadhava NidaanaKshudra S`hvaasa is caused due to Vaata dominance.

Tamaka S`hvaasa:

  • Vaata enters in to the Praan`avaha and Udakavaha Srotas when it moves in the body unnaturally (Pratiloma).
  • It provokes Kapha and affects neck and head.
  • The paroxysm of the disease Tamaka S`hvaasa is very serious and acute.
  • Patient feels that he is entering into the darkness. He suffers from Peenasa, Kaasa.
  • There is a comfort when the Kapha obstructed in the Praan`avaha Srotas is released and thrown out.
  • Patient can not speak and sleep.
  • In sitting position only patient is relaxed and when sleeps down suffers from the श्वास.
  • Tamaka S`hvaasa is due to the Kapha dominance as quoted by Maadhava Nidaana. M. Ni. 12. 15(1)
  • When Tamaka S`hvaasa is associated with ज्वर and Moorchchhaa, it is called as Pratamaka.
  • Pratamak S`hvaasa gets subsided by S`heeta attribute; whereas, due to S`heeta attribute Tamaka S`hvaasa increases.
  • When patient experiences that he is entering into the darkness (Tamas) then it is called as Santamaka श्वास.

Chhinna S`hvaasa:

  • The respiration is deep. The throat gets dry. There is a sound of breathing. But the breathing is discontinuous (Vichchhinna) or a patient can not breathe. The eyes get red in colour.
  • Chhinna S`hvaasa is due to the Kapha and Vaata dominance as quoted by Maadhava Nidaana. M. Ni. 12. 15(1)

Mahaa S`hvaasa:

  • This is very serious condition and patient dies quickly of this disease. The breathing is like bullock. The patient is depressed. There is pain in the Marma Sthaanaa_s like Hridaya, Basti and S`hira.
  • The Vaata moves in the upward direction with sound. The eyes become unstable.
  • Mahaa S`hvaasa is due to the Kapha dominance as quoted by Maadhava Nidaana. M. Ni. 12. 15(1)

Oordhva S`hvaasa:

  • Patient looks upward and can not talk. The patient can not move he becomes still. The channels and the mouth become full of Kapha. The Vaata is aggravated. The Hridaya becomes stagnant. Patient is confused and feels as if he is entering in to the darkness.

S`hvaasa, Kaasa and विलम्बिका are the three very difficult diseases to cure as said by Aachaarya Sus`hruta. S. U. 51.56

All the types of श्वास in dormant phase (mild manifestation) are curable if treated; but when they manifest totally they lead to the death. A. H. Ni. 4.17

Last updated on February 12th, 2021 at 07:33 am

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